Author Archive

Article: “The enduring legacy of Freud – Anna Freud” (BBC News)

BBC News has a new article dated 7 September entitled

“The enduring legacy of Freud – Anna Freud”

The legacy of Sigmund Freud – the founder of psychoanalysis is well known. But perhaps less so is the impact his daughter Anna had, and continues to have, on child psychoanalysis.

Her involvement began at the age of just 13, when she took part in her father’s weekly discussions on psychoanalytic ideas.

Controversially, she is also believed to have received some informal therapy from her father.

By the time of her death in 1982, Anna Freud’s work had revolutionised how we treat children in many walks of life, such as in hospital – with longer visiting hours when children are having treatment – and in the judicial system, where screens and video cameras are used when children have to give evidence.

To read the entire article, click here.

To hear Claudia Hammond’s account of the life and legacy of Anna Freud in Radio 4’s Mind Changers, click here

Hampstead Theatre Presents “Hysteria” (By and Directed by Terry Johnson)

1938. Hampstead, London.

Sigmund Freud has fled Nazi-occupied Austria and settled in leafy Swiss Cottage. At eighty two years old, he aims to spend his final days in peace. However, when Salvador Dalí turns up to discover a less than fully dressed woman in the closet, peace becomes somewhat elusive…

An acknowledged Modern Classic, Terry Johnson’s hilarious farce explores the fall-out when two of the twentieth century’s most brilliant and original minds collide.

Double Olivier award-winner Antony Sher makes a highly anticipated return to Hampstead Theatre in a play that also raises intriguing questions about Freud’s radical revision of his theories of hysteria. His recent theatre credits include The Captain of Kopenick andTravelling Light at the National Theatre.

Terry Johnson returns to Hampstead Theatre following the sell-out hits Old Money starring Maureen Lipman and David Mamet’s Race. His many award-winning productions includeEntertaining Mr SloaneThe Graduate and La Cage aux Folles in the West End.

Running time is approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes including a 20 minute interval.

Please note that this play contains scenes of an adult nature.

In association with Theatre Royal Bath Productions.

Image courtesy of The Freud Museum

For more information, click here.

Grands reportages : “Dans les corridors de l’Institut Philippe-Pinel” (RDI, Québec, 5 septembre 2013)

La chaîne de télévision québécoise RDI diffusera ce soir, jeudi 5 septembre, un documentaire sur l’institut psychiatrique Philippe-Pinel dans le cadre de l’émission Grands reportages. Le documentaire, en lice pour le Prix du public Télé-Québec lors de sa projection aux Rendez-vous du cinéma québécois l’hiver dernier, présente des malades internés ayant commis des crimes dangereux, mais aussi des psychiatres et intervenants de ce milieu encore méconnu.

Pour plus d’informations, voir deux articles récents publiés dans le journal Le Devoir et sur le site de Radio-Canada (ce dernier contenant une entrevue radiophonique avec la réalisatrice,  Hélène Magny).

Exposition : Du visible à l’invisible (Centre d’Étude de l’Expression, Paris)

Exposition du 14 septembre au 27 novembre 2013 au musée SINGER-POLIGNAC

Pour mettre en scène les œuvres de la Collection Sainte-Anne, le Centre d’Etude de l’Expression conçoit chaque année une nouvelle exposition autour d’un thème différent. L’absence d’un lieu d’exposition permanent amène à élaborer un parcours qui permette de sortir des « réserves » les productions artistiques qui y sont conservées.

L’intention est montrer pour leur valeur esthétique et pour leur rareté, des productions artistiques de cette Collection dont les œuvres les plus anciennes remontent à la fin du 19 ème siècle. Un autre objectif est d’interroger le regard des spectateurs et des visiteurs. Les œuvres de la Collection Sainte-Anne et d’autres encore qui y sont associées, sont exposées dans l’enceinte de l’hôpital Sainte-Anne, mais elles n’ont pas à être regardées de façon stigmatisante. Il serait souhaitable au contraire que le visiteur se laisser guider par son plaisir, son émotion et ses références artistiques et culturelles.

Depuis les trois dernières années, les œuvres de la Collection sont associées à d’autres oeuvres, réalisées par des artistes singuliers, identifiés comme appartenant ou non à des mouvements artistiques reconnus. Elles sont spontanément prêtées par les artistes eux même ou bien empruntées à des Collections particulières ou muséales.

Qu’ils aient développé leur activité créative dans l’hôpital ou dans la sphère plus publique de l’art contemporain, en tant qu’artistes reconnus ou anonymes, ces artistes sont des hommes et des femmes qui ont puisé au fond de leur être, dans la richesse intime de leur existence intérieure. Les œuvres de la collection Sainte-Anne peuvent ainsi éclairer les autres œuvres, quelques soient leur provenance. Inversement ces œuvres venues d’ailleurs, peuvent donner accès, par leur ressemblance formelle ou par leur thématique, aux œuvres de la Collection et ainsi faire comprendre que la création artistique ne se nourrit ni de la normalité, ni de l’anormalité.

Le thème choisi pour l’exposition, qui se tiendra en septembre pour une durée de trois mois, touche l’écrit et plus particulièrement les manuscrits. Il ne s’agit pas d’aborder la présence d’écrits au sein de peintures ou de dessins mais de présenter des manuscrits d’artistes pour la valeur artistique de leur sens et de leur forme.

Dr Anne-Marie Dubois

Secrétaire Générale du Centre d’Etude de l’Expression

Pour plus d’informations, cliquer ici.

Exhibition at London’s Freud Museum: ‘Mad, Bad and Sad: Women and the Mind Doctors’

Freud Museum

10 October 2013 – 2 February 2014

Featuring work by Alice Anderson, Louise Bourgeois, Helen Chadwick, Sarah Lucas, Amie Siegel and Francis Upritchard…

Mad, Bad and Sad: Women and the Mind Doctors

What does a woman want? 
Sigmund Freud’s famous question was originally put to Princess Marie Bonaparte, patient, friend and analyst, the moving force behind Freud’s flight from Nazi Vienna to his final home in London, now the Freud Museum London.

Inspired by Lisa Appignanesi’s acclaimed book, Mad, Bad and Sad: Women and the Mind Doctors from 1800 to the Present, the exhibition highlights the experience of women and their relationship to those who confined, cared for and listened to them.  It also shows how women today conduct their own explorations of mind and imagination in challenging works of art.

How did the mind doctors of the 1900s view their female patients?  What did they make of their variously diagnosed nerves, melancholy, mania, obsession, self-mutilation, tics, possession, hysteria, desire, and rebellion and why in the early 20th century was psychoanalysis liberating for so many female authors and artists? Are some of the questions this exhibition explores.

Through intimate and revealing portraits, shown alongside original historical documents, the exhibition traces key moments in the history of ‘female maladies’ and counterpoints them with women’s boldly inventive art today.

The Women – Mary Lamb, Theroigne de Méricourt, Alice James, Anna O (Bertha Pappenheim), Dora (Ida Bauer); Augustine, Elizabeth Severn, Bryher (Winifred Annie Ellerman), HD (Hilda Doolittle), Princess Marie Bonaparte, Anna Freud, Dorothy Burlingham, Zelda Fitzgerald, Virginia Woolf, Marilyn Monroe, Sylvia Plath and Anna Kavan.

The Mind Doctors – Philipe Pinel, Jean Etienne Esquirol, Jean Martin Charcot, Alexander Morison, William James, Havelock Ellis, Josef Breuer, Sigmund Freud, Lou Andreas Salome, Sandor Ferenczi, Hanns Sachs, Princess Marie Bonaparte, Anna Freud, Dorothy Burlingham, Melanie Klein, Ruth Beuscher and Marianne Kris.

The Artists – Alice Anderson, Louise Bourgeois, Elliott Erwitt, Helen Chadwick, Sarah Lucas, Amie Siegel, Francis Upritchard, plus Richard Dadd and Salvador Dali.

The women’s stories are told through objects, art works, original photographs, papers, books and pictures drawn from the Freud Museum London and other international collections.  This includes Salvador Dali’s portrait of Freud, Freud’s iconic ‘modernist’ chair and the couch on which he died; original paintings and photographs of Mary Lamb, Virginia Woolf and Sylvia Plath on loan from the National Portrait Gallery, London; Phillipe Pinel’s death mask on loan from the University of Edinburgh/National Galleries of Scotland; paintings by Richard Dadd and Anna Kavan and restraining garments from the Bethlem Art and History Collections Trust, London.

The Freud Museum would like to thank the Museum Dr Guislain, Ghent, Belgium, for their support in the making of the exhibition.

The exhibition will be accompanied by a season of performances, talks, films and events. Click here for further information.

New issue – History of Psychiatry

A new issue of History of Psychiatry is available online:

Articles


The theoretical root of Karl Jaspers’ General Psychopathology. Part 2: The influence of Max Weber (Tsutomu Kumazaki)

The present study explores and compares Jaspers’ methodology of psychopathology with Weber’s methodology of sociology. In his works, Weber incorporated the arguments of many other researchers into his own methodology. Jaspers respected Weber as a mentor and presented arguments that were very similar to Weber’s. Both Weber and Jaspers began from empathic understanding, but at the same time aimed for a rational and ideal-typical conceptualization. In addition, their methodologies were similar with respect to their detailed terminology. Such similarities cannot be seen with any other scholars. This suggests that Weber may have played an integral role as a mediator between his contemporary scholars and Jaspers. Thus, Weber may have had the most significant influence on Jaspers.

The Bavarian royal drama of 1886 and the misuse of psychiatry: new results (Heinz Häfner and Felix Sommer) 

The deaths of King Ludwig II of Bavaria and Bernhard von Gudden, Professor of Psychiatry in Munich, in Lake Starnberg near Munich on 13 June 1886 have often been mentioned in the psychiatric-historical literature and in fiction. Von Gudden had written a psychiatric assessment of the King, rating him permanently mentally ill and incapable of reigning. Ludwig II was declared legally incapacitated, dethroned and psychiatrically interned. We will report on an interdisciplinary research project conducted at the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Information was collected from state, local and private archives in Germany and abroad on: (1) the correctness of the psychiatric assessment in form and content; (2) the constitutional basis of the deposition; and (3) its background, motives and execution. The results show that the psychiatric assessment was incorrect in substance and form. They highlight how those in power used psychiatry for their own purposes.

Mental health issues of Maria I of Portugal and her sisters: the contributions of the Willis family to the development of psychiatry (Timothy J Peters and Clive Willis) 

Contemporary accounts credit Dr Francis Willis (1718–1807) with facilitating the recovery of King George III from his major episode of acute mania in 1788–9. Subsequently Willis was summoned to Lisbon to advise on the mental health problems of Queen Maria I. This article reports the nature of the illnesses of Maria and her two similarly affected sisters, and uses the program OPCRIT to propose diagnoses of major depressive disorders. The high prevalence of consanguinity and insanity among the Portuguese monarchy and their antecedents probably contributed to their mental health problems. The successive contributions of the Willis family from Thomas Willis (1621–75) to his grand-nephew, Francis Willis (1792–1859), are reviewed; the popular image is somewhat inaccurate and does not highlight their part in the development of psychiatry.

Psychodynamics in child psychiatry in Sweden, 1945–85: from political vision to treatment ideology (Karin Zetterqvist Nelson and Bengt Sandin) 

In this article, changing treatment ideologies and policies in child psychiatric outpatient services in Sweden from 1945 to 1985 are examined. The aim is to discuss the role played by psychoanalytic and psychodynamic thinking in this process of change. When mental health services for children were introduced in the mid-1940s, psychoanalytic thinking was intertwined with the social democratic vision of the Swedish welfare state in which children symbolized the future. In practice, however, treatment ideology was initially less influenced by psychoanalytic thinking. From the early 1960s, child psychiatric services expanded and the number of units increased. By then, the political vision had disappeared, but a treatment ideology began to evolve based on psychodynamic theories, which became dominant in the 1970s.

The birth and death of Villa 21 (Oisín Wall) 

From 1962 to 1966 David Cooper ran an experimental hospital ward in Villa 21 of Shenley Hospital, Hertfordshire, England. In the histories of mid-twentieth-century psychiatry and anti-psychiatry, this ward has been almost entirely forgotten, overshadowed by the figure of R.D. Laing and his Kingsley Hall experiment. This study attempts to construct a history of Villa 21 and to reassert its historical importance as a manifestation of British anti-psychiatry and the radically anti-institutional politics of its time. Beginning before the opening of the ward, this article follows the story of Villa 21 on theoretical, practical and personal levels through its experimental journey and into its dramatic aftermath when Cooper’s experiment was ideologically obliterated by his successor Michael Conran and physically obliterated by the Hospital administration. It contends that Villa 21 is an example of anti-psychiatry’s attempt to engage with the very structure of society at a profound level. 

 

Battling demons with medical authority: werewolves, physicians and rationalization (Nadine Metzger) 

 

Werewolves and physicians experienced their closest contact in the context of early modern witch and werewolf trials. For medical critics of the trials, melancholic diseases served as reference points for medical explanations of both individual cases and werewolf beliefs in general.

This paper attempts to construct a conceptual history of werewolf beliefs and their respective medical responses. After differentiating the relevant terms, pre-modern werewolf concepts and medical lycanthropy are introduced. The early modern controversy between medical and demonological explanations forms the main part of this study. The history of werewolves and their medical explanations is then traced through to present times. An important point of discussion is to what extent the physicians’ engagements with werewolves can be characterized as rationalization.


‘The issue also contains the classic text “Pauper Lunatics and their Treatment”, by Joshua Harrison Stallard (1870), as well as book reviews of Naoko Wake, Private Practices: Harry Stack Sullivan, the Science of Homosexuality, and American Liberalism, and Anne Borsay and Pamela Dales (eds), Disabled Children: Contested Caring, 1850–1979.

For more information, click here.

New book – The Laws of Kinship: Anthropology, Psychoanalysis, and the Family in France (Camille Robcis)

The Law of Kinship: Anthropology, Psychoanalysis, and the Family in France

Camille Robcis

Published by Cornell University Press, Spring 2013

In France as elsewhere in recent years, legislative debates over single-parent households, same-sex unions, new reproductive technologies, transsexuality, and other challenges to long-held assumptions about the structure of family and kinship relations have been deeply divisive.

What strikes many as uniquely French, however, is the extent to which many of these discussions—whether in legislative chambers, courtrooms, or the mass media—have been conducted in the frequently abstract vocabularies of anthropology and psychoanalysis.

This book seeks to explain why and how academic discourses on kinship have intersected and overlapped with political debates on the family—and on the nature of French republicanism itself.  It focuses on the theories of Claude Lévi-Strauss and Jacques Lacan, both of whom highlighted the interdependence of the sexual and the social by positing a direct correlation between kinship and socialization.  It traces how their ideas gained recognition not only from French social scientists but also from legislators and politicians who relied on some of the most obscure and difficult concepts of structuralism to enact a series of laws concerning the family.  Lévi-Strauss and Lacan constructed the heterosexual family as a universal trope for social and psychic integration, and this understanding of the family at the root of intersubjectivity coincided with the role that the family has played in modern French law and public policy.  The Law of Kinship contributes to larger conversations about the particularities of French political culture, the nature of sexual difference, and the problem of reading and interpretation in intellectual history.

Camille Robcis is Assistant Professor of History at Cornell University.

For more information, click here.

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