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Announcement: Journée d’étude “Névroses ordinaires et extraordinaires d’hier et d’aujourd’hui”

pierre-marie-felix-janetJournée d’étude du réseau Janet

LIEUX

siège de l’Institut Métapsychique International – 51 rue de l’Aqueduc

Paris, France (75010)

DATES

samedi 14 décembre 2013

 

 RÉSUMÉ 

La notion de « névrose extraordinaire » fut au centre de débats au sein de la Société médico-psychologique (SMP) à partir de 1857. Pierre Janet critiqua cet adjectif qui ne rappelait que l’ignorance passée du médical face aux névroses, « comme s’il était raisonnable d’employer ce mot pour l’examen de phénomènes naturels ». Il s’agissait alors de mettre un nom sur un ensemble de cas à la limite des connaissances psychiatriques de l’époque, mêlant entre autres somnambulisme, double personnalité, crises hystériques et phénomènes de lucidité. De nos jours, cette notion de « névrose extraordinaire » pourrait aussi trouver sa place dans la nomenclature en tant qu’alternative diagnostique à la psychose pour une autre clinique : celle des hallucinations et délires non-psychotiques. Le destin de ce débat initié à la SMP n’est-il pas d’améliorer notre compréhension des névroses, à une époque tentée de les ignorer ?

Présentation

La notion de « névrose extraordinaire » fut au centre de débats au sein de la Société Médico-Psychologique à partir de 1857. Pierre Janet critiqua cet adjectif qui ne rappelait que l’ignorance passée du médical face aux névroses, « comme s’il était raisonnable d’employer ce mot pour l’examen de phénomènes naturels » (Janet, 2008, p. 372). Il s’agissait alors de mettre un nom sur un ensemble de cas à la limite des connaissances psychiatriques de l’époque, mêlant entre autres somnambulisme, double personnalité, crises hystériques et phénomènes de lucidité. Les années 1870 connurent une résurgence de ces « névroses extraordinaires » dans la suite du cas de la mystique belge Louise Lateau soumise à l’expertise des médecins, avec la formulation du diagnostic d’hystérie extatique (Lachapelle, 2004 ; Gumpper & Rausky, 2013).

Pierre Janet a hérité de ce matériel clinique qu’il a été amené à observer et classifier, d’abord lors de ses études de somnambules, médiums et possédés réunies dans L’Automatisme Psychologique (1889) ; puis dans d’autres études sur les mystiques et les mécanismes des croyances. Ainsi a-t-il pu faire le pont entre deux époques, mais également entre l’extraordinaire et l’ordinaire, découpant le champ des « névroses ordinaires » que sont par exemple l’hystérie, la psychasthénie et les phobies.

De nos jours, cette notion de « névrose extraordinaire » pourrait aussi trouver sa place dans la nomenclature en tant qu’alternative diagnostique à la psychose pour une autre clinique : celle des hallucinations et délires non-psychotiques. Plus précisément, les récentes théorisations lacaniennes sur les formes ordinaires et extraordinaires de la structure psychotique induisent, par symétrie, une réflexion sur ce que seraient les formes ordinaires et extraordinaires de la structure névrotique (Evrard, 2013). Le destin de ce débat initié à la Société Médico-Psychologique n’est-il pas d’améliorer notre compréhension des névroses, à une époque tentée de les ignorer ?

Programme

9h-10h : Accueil (café, croissants)

10h-10h15 : Introduction, par Isabelle SAILLOT (coordinatrice du Réseau Janet) et Renaud EVRARD (Université de Strasbourg)

10h15-11h00 : Les aliénistes face aux névroses extraordinaires, par Pascal LE MALÉFAN (Université de Rouen)

11h00-11h45 : Extraordinaire et psychopathologie chez Janet, par Renaud EVRARD

11h45-12h30 : Fonction heuristique des « mystiques » dans l’œuvre de Pierre Janet , par Stéphane GUMPPER (Université de Strasbourg)

12h30-14h : Pause (repas libre)

14h-14h45 : Dépersonnalisation à l’adolescence : une étrangeté ordinaire ?, par Manuella DE LUCA (Université Paris-Descartes)

14h45-15h30 : Les défaillances obstinées (« névrotiques ») de la mise à distance transcendantale du monde, par Lucien OULAHBIB (Université de Lyon 3)

15h30-16h15 : Des maladies extraordinaires aux troubles fonctionnels : histoire et actualité des névroses sous l’angle « janétien », par Isabelle SAILLOT

16h15-16h45 : Pause

16h45-17h45 : Table-ronde avec tous les intervenants (questions du public)

17h45-18h : Conclusion, par Isabelle SAILLOT et Renaud EVRARD

CONTACT

Renaud Evrard

courriel : evrardrenaud [at] gmail [dot] com

FICHIER ATTACHÉ

Trouvé sur: http://calenda.org/257829

Conference “Psy Cultures. The Transnational Circulation of Psy Practices and Knowledge” (Rio de Janeiro, september 12-13, 2013)

The Institute of Social Medicine (ISM) and the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) host a conference on “Psy Cultures” in Rio de Janeiro on september 12 and 13 2013.
Enclosed the programme of the seminar:
PSY_CULTURES-page-001

Berichte für Wissenschaftsgeschichte: “Militärpsychiatrisches Theater”

Die neue Ausgabe der Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichtecover (36, 1) enthält einen psychiatriegeschichtlich relevanten Artikel:

Julia Barbara Köhne: Militärpsychiatrisches Theater. Französische Kinematographie der “Kriegshysterie”, 1915–1918

 

Military-Psychiatric Theater. French Cinematography of “War Hysteria”, 1915–1918. During the First World War, the use of a new form of media technology was applied within French military neuro-psychiatry: scientific cinematography. This visual technique was used to represent and produce symptoms of so-called “war hysteria”. “War hysteria” among soldiers and officers not only seemed to symbolize the weakness, inefficiency, and vulnerability of the military collective body, the corps, but challenged the borders of medical cinematography as it was considered to be able to capture ‘real’ symptoms on celluloid. By shivering and shaking, “war hysterics”, firstly, transgressed the classical image of the brave and potent warrior and, secondly, mirrored the flaws of the film technique by emphasizing its limits, twitches, and aesthetical “hysteria”. Analyzing several French medical films, it can be seen that they contain diverse dramaturgical means, just as aesthetical and narrative strategies adopted from forms in the field of illusion, including theater, ballet, cabaret, and feature film. The filmic portrayal of male “hysteria” presented both a transgression and a phantasmatic regaining of the social and military functionability of the strong masculine soldier. The theatrical film rhetoric manages to contrast the shift from the concept of “pithiatisme”, favored by the bulk of the French physicians, in the first half of what was refered to as “la Grande Guerre”, towards a “genuine”, somatic, and physiological aetiology of “war hysteria” cases since 1916.

New Book – The New Brain Sciences and the Management of the Mind (Nikolas Rose, Joelle M. Abi-Rached)

Neuro: The New Brain Sciences and the Management of the Mind

Nikolas Rose and Joelle M. Abi-Rached

Princeton University Press, 2013

The brain sciences are influencing our understanding of human behavior as never before, from neuropsychiatry and neuroeconomics to neurotheology and neuroaesthetics. Many now believe that the brain is what makes us human, and it seems that neuroscientists are poised to become the new experts in the management of human conduct. Neuro describes the key developments–theoretical, technological, economic, and biopolitical–that have enabled the neurosciences to gain such traction outside the laboratory. It explores the ways neurobiological conceptions of personhood are influencing everything from child rearing to criminal justice, and are transforming the ways we “know ourselves” as human beings. In this emerging neuro-ontology, we are not “determined” by our neurobiology: on the contrary, it appears that we can and should seek to improve ourselves by understanding and acting on our brains.

Neuro examines the implications of this emerging trend, weighing the promises against the perils, and evaluating some widely held concerns about a neurobiological “colonization” of the social and human sciences. Despite identifying many exaggerated claims and premature promises, Neuro argues that the openness provided by the new styles of thought taking shape in neuroscience, with its contemporary conceptions of the neuromolecular, plastic, and social brain, could make possible a new and productive engagement between the social and brain sciences.

Nikolas Rose is professor of sociology and head of the Department of Social Science, Health, and Medicine at King’s College London. His books include The Politics of Life Itself: Biomedicine, Power, and Subjectivity in the Twenty-First Century (Princeton).

Joelle M. Abi-Rached is a PhD candidate in the history of science at Harvard University.

For more information on this book, click here.

New issue – History of Psychiatry

A new issue of History of Psychiatry is now available online and contains the following articles:

The morbidity and mortality linked to melancholia: two cohorts compared, 1875–1924 and 1995–2005 (Margaret Harris, Fiona Farquhar, David Healy, Joanna C Le Noury, Stefanie C Linden, J Andrew Hughes, and Anthony P Roberts)

For over a century, melancholia has been linked to increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Data from two epidemiologically complete cohorts of patients presenting to mental health services in North Wales (1874–1924 and 1995–2005) have been used to look at links between diagnoses of melancholia in the first period and severe hospitalized depressive disorders today and other illnesses, and to calculate mortality rates. This is a study of the hospitalized illness rather than the natural illness, and the relationship between illness and hospitalization remains poorly understood. These data confirm that melancholia is associated with a substantial increase in the standardized mortality rate both formerly and today, stemming from a higher rate of deaths from tuberculosis in the historical sample and from suicide in the contemporary sample. The data do not link melancholia to cancer or cardiac disease. The comparison between outcomes for melancholia historically and severe mood disorder today argue favourably for the effectiveness of asylum care.

Ergotism in Norway. Part 1: The symptoms and their interpretation from the late Iron Age to the seventeenth century (Torbjørn Alm and Brita Elvevåg)

Ergotism is a horrendous disease with grotesque symptoms caused by ingesting specific ergot alkaloids. Mass poisoning episodes are attributable to consumption of grain – usually rye – infected with the fungus Claviceps purpurea. By focusing on possible cases of ergotism, we re-examine Norwegian history from the sagas through to the end of the seventeenth century. Our review – not intended to be exhaustive, orex post facto to assign medical or psychiatric labels – draws attention to the very real possibility that many remarkable medical cases may have been the result of the ingestion of highly poisonous and psychoactive food substances. Where possible we highlight explanations given at the time – often rooted in religion or demonology – to explain the disease.

Revisiting mental hygiene: Josef Lundahl’s interpretation of modern psychiatry in Sweden at the beginning of the twentieth century (Katarina Piuva)

The concept of mental hygiene is historically intertwined with eugenics and what it meant both ideologically and for the care of the mentally ill. A closer investigation of the concept and of the historical context shows that different interpretations existed simultaneously. The aim of this essay is to highlight the literary and scientific works of a Swedish psychiatrist, Josef Lundahl, an advocate of the mental hygiene concept. A close reading of his texts is used to provide an example of how the concept of mental hygiene was understood by a psychiatrist and practitioner of mental hygiene. The practice of child-care and out-patient care that Lundahl founded in Visby is far from what we now associate with mental hygiene in the past.

Psychopathology beyond semiology. An essay on the inner workings of psychopathology (Carlos Rejón Altable and Dr Tom Dening)

This text develops three interwoven issues: first, a succinct comparative analysis of medical and psychiatric semiology, which proposes that the lack of referring relations between psychiatric symptoms and brain/psychic dysfunction is a fundamental distinction between medical and psychiatric semiology. Second, the multiple features of psychiatric semiology are reviewed. Third, a new approach to psychopathology is introduced, proposing three different ways to shape symptoms (perception, linguistic structure, praxis); highlighting its role as a cognitive activity that creates intelligibility from undifferentiated experiences; and distinguishing psychopathology and semiology on an activity/product relation basis.

William James and psychical research: towards a radical science of mind (Alexandre Sech Junior, Saulo de Freitas Araujo, and Alexander Moreira-Almeida)

Traditional textbooks on the history of psychiatry and psychology fail to recognize William James’s investigations on psychic phenomena as a legitimate effort to understand the human mind. The purpose of this paper is to offer evidence of his views regarding the exploration of those phenomena as well as the radical, yet alternative, solutions that James advanced to overcome theoretical and methodological hindrances. Through an analysis of his writings, it is argued that his psychological and philosophical works converge in psychical research revealing the outline of a science of mind capable of encompassing psychic phenomena as part of human experience and, therefore, subject to scientific scrutiny.

‘Paralysed with fears and worries’: neurasthenia as a gender-specific disease of civilization (Jessica Slijkhuis and Harry Oosterhuis)

Around 1900 neurasthenia received much attention in both the medical world and society at large. Based on professional publications by Dutch psychiatrists and neurologists and on patient records from the Rhijngeest sanatorium near Leiden in the Netherlands, this article addresses the meanings and interpretations of this nervous disorder as put forward by doctors and patients. We argue that their understanding of this disorder was determined not only by medical views, but also by social-cultural factors and prevailing gender norms.

Use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs during the heroic age of Antarctic exploration (HR Guly)

During the heroic age of Antarctic exploration, there was much discussion on the role of alcohol. The explorers expected to be able to consume alcohol, and the expeditions were supported by companies producing alcoholic beverages that used the Antarctic connection in their advertising. On the other side, it was said (incorrectly) than Fridjof Nansen, perhaps the most famous of the Arctic explorers, had taken no alcohol and this was used in the arguments against alcohol by the temperance movement. In general, alcohol consumption was low but it was felt that alcohol played an important role in maintaining the psychological welfare of the participants. A number of them had alcohol problems, and participation in an expedition was thought to be of benefit in that it would remove the temptation to consume alcohol. However, there were episodes of drunkenness on the ships and in the Antarctic. Cocaine was taken as one of a number of tonics but only one explorer is thought to have abused drugs, though another is said to have done so.

The issue also contains a number of book reviews and the classic text ‘On the Diseases of the Head’ in the Scale of Medicine by Muhammad Akbar Arzn [d. 1722] (presented by Neil Krishan Aggarwal)

For more information, click here.

Seeking Panelists for 2014 AHA (deadline February 1)

Greetings:

I am seeking additional presenters for a panel I am proposing for the 2014 meeting of the American Historical Association. The panel will interrogate issues of nineteenth-century masculinity and, at this point, I am particularly interested in papers that consider the intersections of masculinity with economic issues and/or violence. I also hope to include at least one paper that takes as its subject non-U.S. masculinities or transnational elements of these problems. Please feel free to contact me with questions, suggestions, and/or paper proposals. I can be reached at kmbrian@gwmail.gwu.edu.

Regards,

Kathleen

Kathleen Brian

American Studies Department

George Washington University

2108 G Street NW

Washington, DC 20052

1 (812) 219.7517

kmbrian@gwmail.gwu.edu

Call for Papers: Post-Traumatic Cultures Since the Great War (Copenhagen)

CALL FOR PAPERS

AFTERSHOCK: POST-TRAUMATIC CULTURES SINCE THE GREAT WAR

University of Copenhagen

22.05.2013-24.05.2013, Copenhagen, Denmark

Deadline: 21.01.2013

This cross-disciplinary conference focusses on genres of post-traumatic stress as identified and studied in military and civilian psychology, social and cultural history, film studies as well as literary and art criticism. Post-trauma’s elusive, psycho-social, inter-relational complexity requires such an interdisciplinary approach to place the after-effects of recent conflicts, for instance in Iraq and Afghanistan, within the complex narratives of war-related stress from 1914 onwards. Body, mind and emotion inflected by time and locality should be explored together with the interconnected histories of individual (combat) and collective (civilian) aftershock.

The organizers hope to compare varieties of post-traumatic stress as well as its expressions across societies and cultures in film, literature or visual arts. The interactions between returnees and the traumatized society which they re-enter creates communal, political and media conceptualizations that deserve more extensive study. While military psychology research on returnees thrives, other areas, for instance the dysfunction of post-war family relations, await more comprehensive examination.

To create a forum for exchange and cooperation across the human, social and medical sciences the organisers seek contributions willing to engage with other disciplines. Scholars interested in addressing the inter-connectedness of individual and collective mentalities – for example, in families, medical and political policy, representations of post-trauma, and conflicts over memories of trauma – are welcome to submit proposals for a paper or a panel. Contributors are invited to identify common themes for future cross-disciplinary study that will enable comparison and contrast between post-war nation states, communities and individuals. The organizers intend to establish a network for further research.

Keynote speakers

– Professor Jay Winter, Department of History, Yale University

– Dr Mette Bertelsen, Danish Veteran Centre, Copenhagen Denmark

– Professor Michael Roper, Department of Sociology, University of Essex

– Professor Simon Wessely, Professor of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London and Director, Kings Centre for Military Health Research Institute of Psychiatry

– Dr Sophie Delaporte, Faculty of Philosophy and Human and Social Sciences, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens

– Dr. Raya Morag, Department of Communication & Journalism, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem

– Professor Allan Young, Department of Social Studies of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal

Submission guidelines: Panels and papers The organizers encourage contributors to propose their own cross-disciplinary/ comparative panels. Apart from suggested panels, there will be panels formed by the organizing committee: individual presenters will be grouped according to topic rather than academic discipline. Such panels will be led by nominated Chairs. The organizing committee kindly asks contributors to accept nominations.

Each Chair will coordinate the exchange of papers among the panellists at least a month before the conference to inspire responses and facilitate discussion during the conference. Papers should be up to 2000 words. Panels will last 90 minutes – each panellist will have no more than 20 minutes to present their main points; the remaining time should be devoted to discussion moderated by the Chair, who will also incorporate questions from the audience.

Contributors are invited to submit an abstract (up to 300 words) accompanied by six keywords. The abstracts should indicate affinities with other themes and disciplines in order to suggest recommendations for the organization of panels.

Contributors who want to propose panels are asked to send in a panel title, a brief description (300 words) of its themes and all the abstracts.

Please see the conference website for further information: http://engerom.ku.dk/english/research/conferences/aftershock/about/

Deadline for submissions: January 21, 2013

All enquiries and submissions should be sent to aftershock@hum.ku.dk

The program will be announced in January – February 2013.

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