Irre Blicke. Das Bild des Kranken (Berlin, 6-7. März 2015)

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Irre Blicke. Das Bild des Kranken (Berlin, 6-7 Mar 15)
Sammlung Scharf-Gerstenberg, Schloßstraße 70, 14059 Berlin, 06. – 07.03.2015

Irre Blicke. Das Bild des Kranken zwischen Romantik und Moderne

Das Verhältnis von Kunst und Wahnsinn hat im ausgehenden 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert ganze Generationen von Nervenärzten beschäftigt. Seit Hans Prinzhorns “Bildnerei der Geisteskranken” (1922) denkt man dabei zuerst an Werke von Psychiatrie-Insassen selbst, von denen eine Auswahl derzeit auch in der Ausstellung “Das Wunder in der Schuheinlegesohle” zu sehen ist. Die Tagung “Irre Blicke” fragt hingegen nach der Darstellung des Wahnsinns in der bildenden Kunst zwischen Romantik und Moderne. Wie wird die gesellschaftliche Wahrnehmung des Wahnsinnigen durch den Blick des Künstlers gefiltert? Welche Bedeutung haben psychiatrische Diagnosen? Und welche Rolle spielen moderne Kreativitätsvorstellungen, die dem psychischen Schwellenraum zwischen Krankheit und Gesundheit eine besondere ästhetische Potenz zuschreiben?

Freitag, 6. März 2015

14:15–14:30 PD Dr. Sabine Fastert / Dr. Thomas Röske
Begrüßung und Einführung

14:30–15:30 Prof. Dr. Gregor Wedekind (Mainz)
Zwischen Kunst und Wissenschaft. Die Visualisierung des Wahnsinns in der französischen Bildproduktion des 19. Jahrhunderts

15:30–16:30 Dr. Bettina Brand-Claussen (Zürich)
Verrückte zwischen Beobachtungs-Kunst und Pathologisierung im Deutschland des 19. Jahrhunderts

17:00–18:00 Dr. Thomas Röske / Dr. Kyllikki Zacharias
Führung durch die Ausstellung „Das Wunder in der Schuheinlegesohle“

18:30–19:15 Dr. Thomas Röske (Heidelberg)
Das Bild des „Irren“ in der Kunst – eine Herausforderung für die Kunstgeschichte

Samstag, 7. März 2015

09:45–10:00 Begrüßung

10:00–11:00 Dr. Ingrid von Beyme (Heidelberg)
Wahre Porträts? – Selbstdarstellungen von Anstaltsinsassen zwischen Realität und Vorstellung um 1900

11:00–12:00 PD Dr. Sabine Fastert (München / Berlin)
Ludwig Meidners Irrendarstellung. Männliche Hysterie und Kreativität um 1900

13:30–14:30 Dr. Bernhard Stumpfhaus (Heilbronn)
Bürgerliche Repräsentationsstrategien in der psychiatrischen Fotografie zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhundert. Paul Kemmlers schönes Bild vom Wahn.

14:30–15:30 Dr. Christiane Schmidt (Köln)
Die Expressionisten: Im Garten der Irrsinnigen

16:00–17:00 Prof. Dr. Olaf Peters (Halle)
Das Bild des Wahnsinns zwischen Krankheit und Identifikation in der Neuen Sachlichkeit

17:00–17:30 PD Dr. Sabine Fastert / Dr. Thomas Röske
Resümee und Ende der Tagung

Book announcement – Hypnosepolitik. Der Psychiater August Forel, das Gehirn und die Gesellschaft (1870–1920)

9783412224462Mirjam Bugmann from the Universität Zürich recently publishes her PhD (under the supervision of Philipp Sarasin) on August Forel. The blurb reads:

Der Schweizer Psychiater August Forel (1848–1931), von 1879 bis 1898 Direktor der psychiatrischen Heilanstalt Burghölzli in Zürich und Professor für Psychiatrie, wandte bei Patienten und Pflegepersonal die damals umstrittene Hypnosetherapie an. Forels therapeutisch-wissenschaftliches Wirken war eng mit seinem gesellschaftspolitischen Engagement verknüpft. Dank sozialtechnologischer Intervention entschied sich für ihn im Gehirn die Entwicklung der Menschheit. Das Buch beschreibt für den Zeitraum von 1870 bis 1920 die Abwendung Forels von der Hirnanatomie hin zur psychologischen Therapeutik mittels Arbeitstherapie und Hypnotismus. August Forel wurde damit zu einem der eifrigsten Verfechter der Hypnosetherapie, die gegen Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts auch im deutschsprachigen Raum unter Ärzten und in der Öffentlichkeit kontrovers diskutiert wurde. Die Analyse von Krankenakten und anderen Quellen zeigt Aspekte der damaligen klinischen Praxis und der therapeutischen Inszenierung des Hypnotismus auf.

For more information, click here.

Book announcement – Encyclopedia of Asylum Therapeutics, 1750–1950s

978-0-7864-6897-3Mary De Young, professor of sociology at Grand Valley State University, just publishes a book on Asylum Therapeutics in North America. The blurb reads:

The mentally ill have always been with us, but once confined in institutions their treatment has not always been of much interest or concern. This work makes a case for why it should be. Using published reports, studies, and personal narratives of doctors and patients, this book reveals how therapeutics have always been embedded in their particular social and historical moment, and how they have linked extant medical knowledge, practitioner skill and the expectations of patients who experienced their own disorders in different ways. Three centuries of asylum therapeutics are detailed in encyclopedic entries, including “awakening” patients with firecrackers, easing brain congestion by bleeding, extracting teeth and excising parts of the colon, dousing with water, raising or lowering body temperature, shocking with electricity or toxins, and penetrating the brain with ice picks.

New Issue of Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte

coverThe latest issue of Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte contains several articles that may interest the readers of h-madness.

Einleitung: Bühnen des Wahnsinns. Inszenierungen psychischer Alterität by Alexander Friedland, Rainer Herrn, Johannes Kassar and Sophie Ledebur

 

Der demonstrierte Wahnsinn – Die Klinik als Bühne by Rainer Herrn and Alexander Friedland

Performing Madness: The Clinic as Stage. In the second half of the nineteenth century, clinical demonstrations became the dominant teaching method in psychiatry, playing a key role in medical-professional disputes, as well. This paper traces this widely used though historiographically neglected practice of knowledge implementation and mediation, as demonstrated in the psychiatric clinic of the Berlin Charité (Psychiatrische und Nervenklinik der Berliner Charité) from 1881 to 1927. Documentation of this practice, found within individual medical records, forms the basis of this research. The concept of ‘theatricality’ assists in uncovering the dramatic quality of the clinical demonstration: Psychiatric knowledge was not simply disseminated through such a practice; rather, such knowledge was first performatively created through the very logic of its presentation of exemplary patient histories, as well as through the examination and diagnostic positioning of its patients. The ‘success’ of such presentations depended on many variables, related to staff, time, place, and other situational factors. These include the presence of appropriate lecture halls, the availability and calculated selection of patients, and the employment of specific performative techniques by doctors for the sake of producing desired results. As one effect, clinical demonstrations also encouraged patients to both learn and rehearse behavior considered relevant to the particular diagnosis that was to be demonstrated.

„Simulanten des Irrsinns auf dem Vortragspult“: Dada, Krieg und Psychiatrie, eine ‚Aktive Traumadynamik‘ by Gabriele Dietze

“Simulanten des Irrsinns auf dem Vortragspult”: Dada, War and Psychiatry – ‘Active Dynamics of Trauma’. This paper relates stage performances of dada artists to war neurosis and shell shock as sociocultural phenomena. The leitmotif of this investigation is the notion of simulation, as dada artists were referred to as malingerers (simulators) of madness by the press at the time. I hypothesize that the performers imitate/simulate with drums, shouting and ‘bruitist’ sound poems, the noises of war, staging themselves as war neurotics in a kind of shocking clinical demonstration. Both discourses intersect in the fact that many dadaists try to dodge the draft by simulating madness. The scandalizing anti-art of dada will be understood as contagious anti-pedagogy, trying to vaccinate against the madness of the era.

„[…] mein Recht muss mir werden!“ Hermann Bahrs Tragikomödie Der Querulant (1914) by Rupert Gaderer

“[…] mein Recht muss mir werden!” Hermann Bahr’s Tragicomedy­ Der Querulant­ (1914). At the end of the eighteenth century, people who became notorious for their excessive engagement in legal proceedings started being labeled as “querulents” or “paranoid litigants”. The term “querulents” first appeared in the General Order of the Court for the Prussian States (Allgemeine Gerichtsordnung für die Preußischen Staaten) from July 6, 1793. From there on, the spectrum of juridical measures undertaken against the so-labeled litigators included classifying these persons as ineligible for legal action and psychiatric hospitalization. The paper discusses to what extent Hermann Bahr rearranges psychiatric and legal knowledge about this special type of the complainer in his tragicomedy Der Querulant, premiered in 1914. This concerns, first, the theatricality of the body and speech, secondly, the use of cultural techniques of writing and, thirdly, conflicting notions of justice. Therefore, the paper analyzes the aesthetic function of querulous behavior in the dramatic structure of the play from the point of view of both media theory and literary theory.

Ein Blick in die Tiefe der Seele: Hypnose im Kultur- und Lehrfilm (1920–1936) by Sophie Ledebur

Gazing into the Depths of the Soul: Hypnotism in Documentary and Instructional Film (1920–1936). Although part of the medical fold since the 1870s, hypnosis was long relegated to the margins, recognised and used by only a relatively small group of medical professionals. In the decades around 1900 hypnotic techniques were monopolised as a form of medical treatment through a long and in no way linear process. Hypnosis of laymen was vehemently opposed, however, denounced as being far too dangerous. And yet, medical participation in the aura of spectacular intervention into the human psyche garnered support. The medium of both documentary and instructional film served an important function in this regard, conveying popular interest in acknowledging hypnosis as a scientific method. On the basis of four medically accredited films on hypnosis from 1920 to 1936, this paper attempts to investigate how medical experts and these genres, as part of their effort to claim hypnosis from the realm of public spectacle and parapsychological experimentation, worked to stabilise hypnosis as a purified form of medical and psychiatric practice.

Wahnsinnige Bilder – Zu einer medialen Wissensgeschichte des Psychischen um 1900 by Dr. Veronika Rall. The abstract reads:

Mental Images: Towards a Media History of the Psyche around 1900. Presupposing that visual practices are inherent to the social constitution of knowledge, this article suggests juxtaposing photographs and films produced in a psychiatric environment to popular films run in theaters around 1900, thus identifying cinema’s particular “Denkstil” (Fleck). Rejecting science’s dominating paradigm of visual objectivity (Daston/Galison), the visual apparatus [dispositif] of early cinema facilitates subjective experience of unreason and irrationality and thus initiates a different epistemological approach to knowledge as self-knowledge of a modern, self-reflexive subject. This is particularly evident in early cinema’s depiction of the psyche, which does not solely focus on the physical manifestation of the ‘mad’, ‘insane’ body, but also visualizes the subject’s inner life: technical means like montage, multiple exposure or stop motion can be employed to illustrate subjective visions, fantasies or dreams. Thus, the invisible mind becomes visible as the “unthinkable within thinking” (Deleuze), while the subject is invited to participate in cinema’s “gay science” (Nietzsche).

Psychopathological fringes. Historical and social science perspectives on category work in psychiatry

KinderpsychologTest2Date: 13./14.2.2015

Venue: Berlin, Institute for the History of Medicine, Dahlem

Organization: Nicolas Henckes, Volker Hess, Emmanuel Delille, Marie Reinholdt, Stefan Reinsch, Lara Rzesnitzek,

Contact: stefanie.voth@charite.de

Funded by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche & the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in the framework of the project “Psychiatric Fringes. A historical and sociological investigation of early psychosis in post-war French and German societies”

Over the last few years, the revision process of both the DSM and the chapter V on mental disorders of the ICD has stimulated within psychiatry a series of attempts at challenging established diagnostic categories. These challenges reflect both dissatisfaction with categories as they are defined in existing diagnostic classifications, and a will to adjust them to the demands of clinical and research activities. They are expressed in ways that sometimes strongly resembles the discourse of critical social science. For instance, the conveners of the conference “Deconstructing psychosis” – organized by the American Psychiatric Association along with the WHO and the US National Institutes of Health in 2005 – developed a stringent critique of the proliferation of diagnostic categories in the field of psychosis: “Although these categories are meant to refer to broadly defined psychopathological syndromes rather than biologically defined diseases that exist in nature, inevitably they undergo a process of reification and come to be perceived by many as natural disease entities, the diagnosis of which has absolute meaning in terms of causes, treatment, and outcome as well as required sampling frame for scientific research.”

Controversies over diagnostic categorization in fact have a long history in psychiatry. Rejection of diagnosis has long been prominent among certain segments of psychiatry, from Adolf Meyer’s synthesis in interwar US psychiatry through parts of phenomenological psychiatry in Germany to antipsychiatry and Lacanian psychoanalysis in 1970s France. However, the deconstruction of diagnosis has also been a core feature of what might be termed category work in psychiatry, at least since the fall of the unitary psychosis concept in the last quarter of the 19th century. By the notion of category work we understand the multifaceted practices developed by clinicians, epidemiologists, biologists, administrators and patients to negotiate and objectify the boundaries of diagnostic categories. While such practices have mostly been devoted to securing the internal coherence of major categories, the requirements of both research and clinical work have prompted the development of liminal categories meant to target conditions situated between illness and health, or between broader established diagnostic classes. Examples of such categories include prodromal schizophrenia, latent depression as well as “borderline” disorder and a range of personality disorders. Closely related to these constructs are notions of comorbidity and dimensional concepts of diagnostic spectra or continua. In many of these cases, the challenge for psychiatrists has been to devise entities that include in their very definition the possibility of their transitory status. These diagnostic constructs thus convey a paradox: while they question categorical thinking, they are usually framed within the language of categories.

The aim of this workshop is to offer a historical and social science perspective on the history and current status of category work at the fringes of psychopathology. Unlike constructionist perspectives on psychiatric diagnosis that have aimed to demonstrate the less than solid nature of core categories such as depression, schizophrenia and neurosis, we are interested in the already internally contested and marginal categories devised to target conditions situated at the borders of psychopathology. Thus, rather than elaborating on the longstanding debates between “lumpers” and “splitters”, we would like to examine the ways in which psychiatry has developed knowledge and practices to target these conditions.

Participants: Annika Berg, Céline Borelle, Ivan Crozier, Steeves Demazeux, Stefan Ecks, Bolette Frydendahl Larsen, Nicolas Henckes, Volker Hess, Lara Keuck, Ken MacLeish, Julie Mazaleigue, Jörg Niewöhner, Richard Noll, Vincent Pidoux, Egidio Priani, Marie Reinholdt, Lara Rzesnitzek, Edward Shorter, Benjamin Zajicek

Full Program is available at this address: http://www.cermes3.cnrs.fr/images/pdf/psychopathological-fringes-programm.pdf

ESRC-funded PhD studentship Donald W. Winnicott and the history of child and adolescent mental health services

donald-winnicottDeadline: 15 February 2015

Have you completed or are you close to completing a Master’s degree in History of Medicine, Modern History, Science and Technology Studies, Sociology of Health or Medicine, or a related field? Are you interested in the history of psychiatry in the second half of the twentieth century? Are you looking for a funded PhD project?

Applications are invited for a PhD studentship on Donald W. Winnicott and the impact that the work of this pioneering paediatrician and psychoanalyst had on child and adolescent mental health services in Britain since the Second World War. The studentship will commence in September 2015, and is tenable for three years’ full-time study.

History of CAMHS
Psychiatric, psychological and psychotherapeutic services for children and adolescents have changed radically in Britain in the decades since the Second World War. Before the 1940s, only a handful of pioneering, psychoanalytically trained practitioners specialised on the treatment of children in clinical settings. A somewhat a larger number of children came into contact with Child Guidance clinics, usually run by local educational authorities. In the decades following the launch of National Health Service in 1948 child psychiatry and Child Guidance were transformed into a complex network of services, which since the 1990s have been generally referred to as Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). With this project we hope to start unpacking some of the assumptions and approaches built into CAMHS from its post-war inception, helping us to better understand how these have informed the framework and delivery of such services today.

Donald Winnicott
We are especially interested in the ways in which psychodynamic approaches continued to shape practices in a context increasingly dominated by biomedical concepts. We specifically wish to study those associated with the work of Donald W. Winnicott, a paediatrician who trained as a psychoanalyst. Winnicott promoted principles based on psychodynamic understanding of intimate relationships from infancy as essential for optimal every-day and specialist child care, therapeutic plans and educational provision. He advocated the use of ordinary language to engage with children’s maturational processes and those providing their care [the “Facilitating Environment”] to optimise health and development. Winnicott frequently recorded radio programmes and, as an early exponent of the public broadcasting role of child health and welfare specialists, was particularly visible to a broad public.

There is significant scope for the student undertaking this project to develop their own thematic and empirical interests
Among the relevant topics that might be covered are: the impact of Winnicottian (and other psychodynamic) approaches on child and adolescent psychiatry; tensions between psychodynamic approaches and biomedically informed concepts; the growing role of psychoactive drugs; reforms of CAMHS and the importance placed upon the practitioner-patient relationship as an essential tool for assessment and therapy.

The project is funded through the North West Doctoral Training Centre (NWDTC), the largest Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) funded DTC in England, which includes Lancaster University, the University of Liverpool and the University of Manchester. This is a CASE award, which means that we have a non-academic partner for the project, the Squiggle Foundation, an organisation dedicated to studying and disseminating the work of Donald Winnicott.

The PhD studentship will be held at the University of Manchester’s Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine (CHSTM), which is internationally recognised for its work on the history of modern and contemporary science, technology and medicine. The student will be jointly supervised by Dr Carsten Timmermann (CHSTM, University of Manchester) and Dr Celia Roberts (Sociology, Lancaster University). Dr Adrian Sutton, the Director of the Squiggle Foundation will take an active part in the supervision of the student.

The studentship will cover university fees at UK/EU rates, and provide a living allowance subject to the ESRC’s residency requirements.

Candidates should have a strong Master’s degree in History or Social Studies of Medicine, Science and Technology Studies, or a related subject.

Application
To apply, please send the following to Dr Carsten Timmermann, carsten.timmermann@manchester.ac.uk, by 15 February 2015:

a CV,
a sample of writing
a covering letter outlining reasons for application
Potential applicants are encouraged to email Dr Timmermann at the same address for further information and informal discussion.

 

Call for Papers: “Does the History of Psychology Have a Future?”

The American Lightner Witmer, credited with coining the term "clinical psychology." From: http://www.psych.upenn.edu/history/witmertext.htm

The American Lightner Witmer, credited with being one of the early developers of clinical psychology. From: http://www.psych.upenn.edu/history/witmertext.htm


HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY

CALL FOR PAPERS:

DOES THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY HAVE A FUTURE?

History of Psychology invites submissions for a special issue on the future of the history of psychology.

20 years ago, Kurt Danziger published an article with the provocative title, “Does the history of psychology have a future?” and it led to a great deal of comment and debate. The institutional position of the field does not seem to have improved in the meantime. The graduate program in history and theory of psychology at the University of New Hampshire was the only one of its kind in the USA and it was ended in 2009. Although the history of psychology is still widely taught at the undergraduate level, concerns have been expressed over a possible decline in the number of psychology departments offering the course. Professional historians have become increasingly prominent in the field. Could the subject eventually be handed over to them, as has already happened with the history of the physical sciences? Should this development be welcomed? There are many issues to be addressed.

We welcome contributions on any aspect of the subject. In order to get as many different perspectives as possible, we welcome contributions from authors in different disciplines (especially psychologists and historians), authors at different stages in their career (from graduate students to emeriti) and authors from different parts of the world. We are well aware that the current situation in the USA may not be representative of the situation elsewhere.

The submission deadline is July 15, 2015.

The main text of each manuscript, exclusive of figures, tables, references, or appendixes, should not exceed 35 double-spaced pages (approximately 7,500 words). Initial inquiries regarding the special issue may be sent to the regular editor, Nadine Weidman (weidman@fas.harvard.edu) or the guest editor, Adrian Brock (adrian.c.brock@gmail.com).

Papers should be submitted through the regular submission portal for History of Psychology (http://www.apa.org/journals/hop/submission.html) with a cover letter indicating that the paper is to be considered for the special issue.

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