Archive for September, 2012

Colloque : Clés des songes et sciences des rêves (Paris, 1er-2 octobre)

Clés des songes et sciences des rêves

Journées d’études du Labex HASTEC (qui coincident avec la parution du livre Nuits savantesde Jacqueline Carroy, aux éditions de l’EHESS)

Organisées par Jacqueline Carroy et Juliette Lancel

Lundi 1er et mardi 2 octobre

EHESS – Salle du conseil

190-198, avenue de France – 75013 Paris

Le rêve n’est pas seulement un objet physiologique et psychologique
anhistorique. C’est aussi un objet social et historique que l’on met en récit et/ou en
image pour étayer une pratique, une croyance, un savoir ou une science.
On peut faire l’hypothèse que c’est à la fin du XVIIIe siècle et au début du
XIXe que des médecins, des philosophes et des amateurs cultivés ont voulu faire
science à partir, notamment, de la notation méthodique de leurs propres rêves au
réveil. Les exemples de rêves devaient permettre d’analyser scientifiquement la
formation de ceux-ci pour faire échec aux « superstitions » en montrant que les
productions nocturnes ne renvoyaient pas à l’avenir mais au passé. De façon
provocante, Freud a revendiqué à l’inverse, contre l’onirologie de son temps, de
pratiquer une nouvelle interprétation qu’il fit remonter explicitement, à partir de
1914, à Artémidore – auteur de la seule clé des songes antique conservée – tout en
refusant cependant que le rêve ait un caractère stricto sensu prémonitoire. En
réalité les récits historiques, aussi bien des onirologues du XIXe siècle que de
Freud, demandent à être interrogés. La question des relations entre les rêves
comme objets savants et les songes comme objets à interpréter demanderait à être
précisée et complexifiée.
Ces journées d’études pourront servir de base et de tremplin à une
recherche de plus grande amplitude sur les clés des songes dans la tradition
occidentale depuis Artémidore jusqu’au 19e siècle et à nos jours. Il s’agit d’un
genre d’écrit savant et populaire qui repose sur un corpus empilé, compilé et
composite, justifiant des analyses lexicographiques et lexicométriques fines.
L’investigation de ce corpus particulier, qui n’a jamais été fait sur une longue
durée, pourra mettre en évidence des permanences, des différences et des
novations traversant les époques, mais aussi les espaces géographiques et les
cultures. Il est important de souligner d’autre part qu’a perduré en Occident une
tradition médicale savante d’interprétation des songes.
A travers cette historicisation des clés des songes sur une longue durée, qui
impliquera des synergies entre spécialistes de différentes périodes, on pourrait
comprendre de façon plus et mieux différenciée les pratiques et les positions de
croyance qui ont touché et touchent aux rêves, d’Artémidore à Freud.

Programme:

LUNDI 1ER OCTOBRE 2012
10H00 – Ouverture et allocutions de bienvenue
10h30 –Vincent Barras (Université de Lausanne, IUHMSP)
« Le contexte médical du rêve dans la médecine grecque. »
11h15 – Pause
11h30 – Julien du Bouchet (Montpellier 3)
« Artémidore, homme de science. »
12h15 – Christian Jacob (EHESS, CNRS, AnHIMA/INHA)
« Rêves de survol et d’ascension. »
13h00 – Déjeuner
14h30 – Andrei Timotin (Académie Roumaine, EPHE)
« Techniques exégétiques dans les clés des songes byzantines. »
15h15 – Jean-Claude Schmitt (EHESS, GAHOM)
« Les clés des songes au Moyen Âge. »
16h – Pause
16h15 – Pierre-Antoine Fabre (EHESS, CARE)

« Voir n’est pas rêver. La vision comme accomplissement du songe dans quelques témoignages spirituels d’époque moderne. »

17h00 – Hervé Huot (EHESS)
« Les « songes prédiseurs », s’ils sont déterminés par le positionnement des corps
célestes, intéressent-ils encore l’autorité théologique ? (Europe de l’Ouest, XVIe
siècle). »

MARDI 2 OCTOBRE 2012

09h30 – Juliette Lancel (HASTEC, EHESS, CAK)
« D’Alep à Paris, itinéraire d’une clé des songes : le plaidoyer prudent d’un
médecin du XVIIe siècle. »
10h15 – Guillaume Garnier (Université de Poitiers)
« Faut-il dormir pour rêver ? »
11h00 – Pause
11h15 – Nicole Edelman (Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense)
« Les clés des songes à l’épreuve de la voyance et de l’astrologie (XIXe-XXe
siècles). »
12h00 – Philippe Boutry (EHESS, Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, CARE)
« Les clés des songes d’Halbert d’Angers . »
12h45 – Déjeuner
14h30 – Jacqueline Carroy (EHESS, CAK)
« L’Antiquité au crible de la science des rêves du XIXe siècle. »
15h15 – Andreas Mayer (Max Planck Institut Berlin)
« La Traumdeutung, une nouvelle clé des songes ? »

Pour plus d’informations, cliquer ici.

Current Opinion in Psychiatry

In the latest issue of Current Opinion in Psychiatry, one article is dedicated to the history of psychiatry:

Engstrom Eric J, « History of psychiatry and its institutions », Current opinion in psychiatry, 20 September 2012. The abstract reads:

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

The purpose of this review is to highlight recent English-language literature on the history of psychiatric institutions. It considers work published since 2010, as well as a few important older articles that have not yet been reviewed in these pages.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Developments in the last half of the 20th century suggest that psychiatric historiography might finally be able to put the mental asylum behind it. Deinstitutionalization and the diffusion of professional jurisdictions seem to have consigned institutional histories to the methodological dustbin. But these transformations have also opened new perspectives on the institutional history of psychiatry and its methodologies. This review reflects on some of the enduring historiographic potential and importance of evidence drawn from institutional settings.

SUMMARY:

As carceral narratives have begun to lose their paradigmatic status within psychiatric historiography, a much more nuanced picture of asylum culture is becoming visible. The history of psychiatric institutions remains an integral and productive part of psychiatric historiography.

 

“How I Became a Historian of Psychiatry”: Cathy Coleborne

To start off the new academic year, Catharine Coleborne, Associate Professor at the University of Waikato (NZ) and author among others of ‘Madness’ in the family: Insanity and institutions in the Australasian colonial world 1860s-1914 (2010) and Reading ‘Madness’: Gender and difference in the colonial asylum in Victoria, Australia, 1848-1880s (2007) has kindly agreed to share with us how she became a historian of psychiatry:

Born in 1967 in Armidale in northern New South Wales, Australia, I grew up a long way from there in the Latrobe Valley area of Gippsland in the state of Victoria. This is still a working-class area of the state and I was always aware of the importance of socio-economic dimensions of the world at large. My left-leaning parents talked a good deal about politics, and my mother in particular instilled in me a strong sense of social justice. It was in my third year of studying History and English at the University of Melbourne that I began to see History as my chosen field. In that year, I undertook what might have seemed a fairly narrow focus across the two disciplines, and studied the history and literature of early-modern England. In my combined Honours year I wrote a History Honours thesis about widowhood from 1580 to 1680, and proceeded in my Masters thesis in History to examine health, illness and life stages for women in the context of feminist debates about their construction.  In doing this I gained a new awareness of the potential of social history by looking at people’s private lives, their family worlds, secrets, silences, repression, concepts of class and power, gender, and more. At the University of Melbourne, the History and Philosophy of Science department was yet to appoint historians of the calibre of Warwick Anderson to begin what has become an important research and teaching unit in medical humanities (now the Centre for Health and Society). I had discovered the interesting and influential work of Patricia Crawford and others, but I was still on the cusp of an intellectual journey that would lead me to define myself, eventually, as a cultural historian of medicine and psychiatry.

First, then, I was trained as a feminist historian: New Zealand Feminist historian Pat Grimshaw ran the History Honours seminar in Feminist History, where I read all the major Anglo-American feminist historians, and she was also one of the supervisors, together with Charles Zika, of my Masters thesis. Now, all of this provided me with a set of tools and ideas – but what did it mean to research British histories from Australia? I certainly did not visit any ‘real’ archives or get my hands covered by literal or metaphoric manuscript ‘dust’. My many primary sources for the Masters thesis – some forty-five diaries, medical advice books, sermons, treatises, and midwives’ books – were all found in major Microfilm collections or were published and available in the extensive Baillieu Library collection. Indeed, since I had not studied much nineteenth-century colonial Australian histories, unlike most of my peers, I missed the annual trip to the Public Records Office of Victoria which was then located out in the Western suburbs of Melbourne. In fact, I missed out on any hands-on archival experience – something of a rite of passage for historians, as Carolyn Steedman notes – until I made a shift to colonial histories. This notion of the ‘rite of passage’ through archival research might be interpreted as a ‘stubborn’ professional self-presentation by historians, but it also might represent an opportunity for historians to come face-to -face with theories of making history.

In those years, aside from a kind of personal awakening that – in my view – we ought to write histories of our own places, this shift came about because I worked as a research assistant for several Australian history projects in the early 1990s. One of these roles involved researching a history of nursing in colonial Victoria, a job which took me to small hospitals all round regional Victoria. I was often the first person for many years to request to see and read old hospital board minute books for the nineteenth century. I would be led into a cold, basement room and given the freedom to range over boxes of notes, scribbles, annual reports, photocopies and other materials. These were archives, but not always well cared for or catalogued. But my experience of making sense of these to craft history – to tell stories – was somehow captivating. I was hooked. I thought about a topic for doctoral study, enrolled at Latrobe University with my supervisor Diane Kirkby, now Professor and a prominent figure in Law and History circles, and finally visited the Public Records Office.

One of the seventeenth-century women I’d written about, Hannah Allen, had experienced mental breakdown. Widowed at 25, Hannah plunged into a ‘deep melancholy’. Her memoir, Satan his Methods and Malice Baffled, published in 1683, was an account of her depression through stories of temptation, terrors, suicide attempts, self-starvation and finally, recovery. Satan taunted her with apparitions, strange lights, and forced her to blaspheme: ‘I would write in several places on the walls with the point of my sizer, Woe, Woe, Woe and alas to all Eternity’. She ingested opium, smoked spiders in a pipe with tobacco, and tried to bleed herself to death. Hannah’s message is ultimately conservative, because she recovered her health with the help of both religion and marriage; this also explains the publication of her work. My reading of Michael Macdonald’s work about ‘mystical healing’ was important here, and as I explored colonial hospitals I was reminded of this theme: if there were sick bodies in colonial Victoria, there were bound to be sick minds. I duly investigated the archival possibilities for a study of lunacy in Victoria, and also found that little academic or scholarly work had been completed for that context. The archival record, in the form of extant institutional clinical patient cases, was plentiful, and nobody had made much of these sources, at least, not for this particular site. Studies of institutional confinement existed – most importantly, Stephen Garton’s landmark and influential text Medicine and Madness, about insanity in New South Wales between 1880 and 1940, and Jill Mathews’ important work Good and Mad Women which used twentieth-century records for South Australia – but Victoria’s history of mental illness and its institutions was less well known.

One of the things I recall most about that period of my academic life is that I was now facing a range of new intellectual challenges. One person remarked, ‘Congratulations on finding your archive!’ I will always remember this comment. It made me realize that the process of embarking on archival research in one’s own context might be somehow fraught or contested.  Was this archive of asylum records mine? Was it therefore the case that no one else might look into this archive? I was in new territory. I also now had to navigate the issues of archival record selection. Among the specific methodological or theoretical tools at my disposal, along with social history modes, were feminist methods which at that time emphasised female visibility and new practices of reading and interpretation; increasingly, too, and appropriately, like their interdisciplinary colleagues, historians had begun to assert new modes of interpreting gender as a relational category. In addition, the feminist historical debate was shifting and now moving towards more complex accounts of the way that gender, class and ethnicity all intersect. Embarking on doctoral work not only moved me out of one time period and into another, but it brought new and direct intellectual challenges. In other words, far from being somehow transported into a world of the past through ‘the archive’, I was forced into a difficult set of present theoretical engagements. In becoming an archival historian, I did not contract what the French philosopher Jacques Derrida termed ‘Archive fever proper’, but rather, I maintained a surly distance from the archive as I sought to make sense of how to use it.

My book Reading ‘Madness’: Gender and difference in the colonial asylum in Victoria, Australia, 1848-1880s (API Network, Perth WA: 2007) came out a long time after the end of my doctorate in 1998, and reflects my much earlier interests in constructions of female madness in the colonial setting.  The book also directly thinks about patient casenotes as texts which created ‘madness’ and which could be read as textual representations. The book also reflects my then perhaps naive conceptions of power through a Foucauldian perspective. I was mostly influenced then by Discipline and Punish, rather than Foucault’s other work, and saw the institution as carceral and productive of meanings about insanity and the insane, rather than as institutions which were actively negotiated and which were in dialogue with families of the mentally ill. While this work reflects my thinking at that time, it made me aware of the international field of the social and cultural histories of medicine. It led to a range of exciting opportunities: I curated an exhibition about the history of mental health in Victoria that was exhibited at the Medical Museum, part of the Brownless Medical Library at the University of Melbourne, in 1999. I later conducted new research into museum collections of psychiatric objects in Western Australia, Victoria and New Zealand and Dolly MacKinnon and I recently published the collection of essays Exhibiting Madness (Routledge, 2011) which examines these themes of insanity and the museum and the politics of exhibiting collections of psychiatric objects, among many other topics.

I first came across the phrase the ‘asylum archive’ in the work of my friend and research colleague Jim Mills in his powerful account of race and insanity in colonial India. This term was used with some irony, since Mills found his major archival sources for a study of ‘native-only’ asylums in south India rotting in a cupboard in a disused psychiatric institution: nobody even knew they were there, yet the records contained hundreds of cases of Indian people confined by British administrators for wandering, smoking cannabis, and other behaviours which led to their diagnosis of insanity. Writing about South Africa, Sally Swartz laments the lost lives of women psychiatric patients at various institutions in the Cape. These lives are lost, writes Swartz, despite the vast amount of record-keeping about them.

It is something of a paradox that we know such a large amount about institutionalised people when they were hidden from public view in their own lifetimes. Archival records of insanity contain histories of people who would otherwise have remained virtually invisible, though those lives were heavily circumscribed. Recently, my own work has drawn specific attention to this asylum archive. Following my doctoral work which had focused on more limited ways on the negotiations of the inane and their families with institutions, I was interested to find out how families interacted with mental hospitals in the nineteenth century, and how those interactions, too, were gendered. This research involved new approaches to four different state or national archives and culminated in the book ‘Madness’ in the family: Insanity and institutions in the Australasian colonial world 1860s-1914 (Palgrave, 2010). I see this as an important contribution to social and cultural histories of insanity, institutions and families, as well as to discussions about archival sources, finding emotions in the archive, and the patterns of institutional treatment of the insane in the colonial world.

As part of my new research into ethnicity, migration and insanity, part of a larger study with Professor Angela McCarthy at the University of Otago, I am currently immersed in a large dataset of archival cases from one psychiatric institution, looking for hidden and open references to ethnicity, gender and class, building on the rich scholarship of American historians of earlier decades, including Gerald Grob, who examined questions of inequality and the treatment of the insane. Together McCarthy and I produced the edited collection Migration, Ethnicity, and Mental Health: International Perspectives, 1840-2010 (Routledge, 2012). Those constant themes of power, social and cultural difference, and how both the institution and the archive reflect and produce such ‘identities’, continue to fascinate me. Mental health and illness, and the institutions used to confine and treat the mentally ill, provide a way for historians to encounter the disenfranchised peoples of the past. Even more powerfully, by engaging as historians with present debates about deinstitutionalisation and community care, and by becoming involved in writing and producing histories of twentieth-century mental health care, historians can actively interrogate the power structures of the past and their enduring legacies in the present. Increasingly, through community projects and engagements, I am moving towards a deeper awareness of the role and function of psychiatric history in our current moment.

Many thanks to Cathy for sharing with us her intellectual trajectory!

Therapist and Critic of Psychiatry Thomas Szasz (1920-2012)

The well-known psychotherapist and vocal critic of psychiatry Thomas Szasz has died.

Both the New York Times and the Boston Globe have printed and posted obituaries describing his career and life.  Szasz’s own website also features a more personal obituary about the man.

His categorical rejection of coercion and psychopathologization in mental healthcare and his collaboration with the Church of Scientology made him one of the most divisive figures in the history of 20th century psychiatry.  It is often forgotten, however, that Szasz was trained in psychoanalysis and practiced psychotherapy.

YouTube showcases numerous videos of Szasz’s lectures and interviews.  But one particularly interesting video comes from a panel discussion held at the first “Evolution of Psychotherapy Conference” in 1985.  There, Szasz speaks on the topic “Role of Therapist, Role of Client,” along with colleagues Rollo May, Carl Rogers, and Virginia Satir.  The video, which is ideal for using in the classroom, offers a rare opportunity to see Szasz situate himself vis a vis some of the most influential psychotherapists of his time.

Parution de livre : “Nuits savantes : une histoire des rêves, 1800-1945” (Jacqueline Carroy)

Nuits savantes : Une histoire des rêves (1800-1945)

Jacqueline Carroy

Éditions de l’EHESS

Comment les rêves sont-ils devenus des objets de science ? En nous restituant les pratiques oniriques de savants rêveurs, illustres ou amateurs cultivés, l’auteur propose une histoire inédite des songes et revient sur  l’orgine de la psychanalyse.
Pourquoi des savants se sont-ils intéressés à leurs songes et appliqués à les noter minutieusement? Centré sur l’Europe francophone, ce livre prend comme objet d’étude une figure qui s’affirme au cours du XIXe siècle et se perpétue jusqu’à la Seconde Guerre mondiale, celle du «savant rêveur». Dans un but scientifique, philosophes, médecins et psychologues, mais aussi amateurs cultivés, utilisent leurs propres exemples pour construire une psychologie fondée sur les rêves, interprétés comme résultant de perceptions extérieures transformées, d’impressions intimes, parfois sexuelles, ou d’associations d’idées. Ces expériences nocturnes leur apparaissent principalement comme des retours d’un passé soit récent, soit très ancien, demeuré le plus souvent inconscient. Par ailleurs, on continue à donner aux visions nocturnes un sens prémonitoire, en particulier dans les clefs des songes, largement diffusées à l’époque. Enfin, lors de la Grande Guerre, les consigner par écrit devient un précieux refuge pour fuir une réalité vécue comme un cauchemar.
En permettant de redécouvrir les « nuits savantes» de personnages comme Maury, Hervey de Saint-Denys, Tarde, Delbœuf ou Halbwachs, l’auteur propose une histoire inédite des rêves et revient sur les débuts de la psychanalyse. Jacqueline Carroy montre que Freud, savant rêveur de son temps, a suivi les pas de ses prédécesseurs, tout en posant les bases d’une nouvelle approche des songes. Cet ouvrage novateur exhume des conceptions et des pratiques aujourd’hui oubliées, bien qu’à l’origine de notre modernité.

En librairie le 4 octobre 2012

http://www.editions.ehess.fr/a-paraitre/

Fall Schedule – Harvard Colloquium on the History of Psychiatry and Medicine

The Department of Postgraduate and Continuing Education, McLean Hospital And The Center for the History of Medicine, Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine present

COLLOQUIUM ON THE HISTORY OF PSYCHIATRY AND MEDICINE

David G. Satin, M.D., DLFAPA Director

Open to students of history and those valuing a historical perspective on their professions.

Fall 2012 Schedule

September 20 [CANCELLED]

October 18

Pain Management: From René Descartes to Spinal Cord Stimulation and Beyond

Joe Ordia, M.D., FACS: Professor of Neurosurgery, Boston University School of Medicine; Attending Neurosurgeon, Boston Medical Center

November 1

The EEG Comes of Age at Harvard 1934-1936: Confirmation of Brain Electrical Activity in Seizures

David M. Dawson, M.D.: Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School and the Brigham and Women’s Hospital

December 20

Disappearing Neurological Diseases: Derek Denny-Brown and 50 years of Changing Neurology

Thomas D. Sabin, M.D.: Professor and Vice Chairman, Department of Neurology, Tufts Medical School; Lecturer in Neurology, Harvard Medical School

4:00 P.M.—5:30 P.M.

Ware Room, fifth floor, Countway Library of Medicine, Harvard Medical Area

For further information contact David G. Satin, M.D., Colloquium Director: phone/fax 617-332-0032, e-mail: david_satin@hms.harvard.edu

Cfp – AfterShock: Post-traumatic cultures since the Great War

Excerpt of one of the founding articles on shell shock by Myers published in 1915

This cross-disciplinary conference focuses on genres of post-traumatic stress as identified and studied in military and civilian psychology, social and cultural history, film studies as well as literary and art criticism. Post-trauma’s elusive, psycho-social, inter-relational complexity requires such an interdisciplinary approach to place the after-effects of recent conflicts, for instance in Iraq and Afghanistan, within the complex narratives of war-related stress from 1914 onwards. Body, mind and emotion inflected by time and locality should be explored together with the interconnected histories of individual (combat) and collective (civilian) aftershock.

The organizers hope to compare varieties of post-traumatic stress as well as its expressions across societies and cultures in film, literature or visual arts. The interactions between returnees and the traumatized society which they re-enter creates communal, political and media conceptualizations that deserve more extensive study. While military psychology research on returnees thrives, other areas, for instance the dysfunction of post-war family relations, await more comprehensive examination.

To create a forum for exchange and cooperation across the human, social and medical sciences the organisers seek contributions willing to engage with other disciplines. Scholars interested in addressing the inter-connectedness of individual and collective mentalities – for example, in families, medical and political policy, representations of post-trauma, and conflicts over memories of trauma – are welcome to submit proposals for a paper or a panel. Contributors are invited to identify common themes for future cross-disciplinary study that will enable comparison and contrast between post-war nation states, communities and individuals. The organizers intend to establish a network for further research.

Submission guidelines: Panels and papers

The organizers encourage contributors to propose their own cross-disciplinary/ comparative panels. Apart from suggested panels, there will be panels formed by the organizing committee: individual presenters will be grouped according to topic rather than academic discipline. Such panels will be led by nominated Chairs. The organizing committee kindly asks contributors to accept nominations.

Each Chair will coordinate the exchange of papers among the panellists at least a month before the conference to inspire responses and facilitate discussion during the conference. Papers should be up to 2000 words. Panels will last 90 minutes – each panellist will have no more than 20 minutes to present their main points; the remaining time should be devoted to discussion moderated by the Chair, who will also incorporate questions from the audience.

Contributors are invited to submit an abstract (up to 300 words) accompanied by six keywords. The abstracts should indicate affinities with other themes and disciplines in order to suggest recommendations for the organization of panels.

Contributors who want to propose panels are asked to send in a panel title, a brief description (300 words) of its themes and all the abstracts.

Keynote speakers

Professor Jay Winter, Department of History, Yale University

Dr Mette Bertelsen, Danish Veteran Centre, Copenhagen Denmark

Professor Michael Roper, Department of Sociology, University of Essex

Professor Simon Wessely, Professor of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London and Director, Kings Centre for Military Health Research Institute of Psychiatry

Professor E. Ann Kaplan, Distinguished Professor of English and Cultural Analysis and Theory at Stony Brook University, NY

Dr Sophie Delaporte, Faculty of Philosophy and Human and Social Sciences, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens.

 

Conference format

The conference is hosted by the University of Copenhagen together with the Veterans Centre of the Danish Military Academy. The proceedings will be held on the Humanities Faculty campus at 128 Njalsgade, 2300 Copenhagen.

Some sections of the conference will be streamed.

The conference language is English.

Conference dates

The conference will take place from 22 to 24 May 2013 in Copenhagen.

Deadline for proposals: December 15, 2012.

Submissions received after the deadline will not be considered unless an extension has been granted by the organising committee. Selected papers will be published in a collection of essays.

For more information, click here.

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