Archive for the ‘ article ’ Category

New issue – History of Psychiatry

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The second issue of 2017 of History of Psychiatry is now available and could be of interest to H-madness readers. The issue includes the following articles:

Philippe Huneman, From a religious view of madness to religious mania: the Encyclopédie, Pinel, Esquirol.

This paper focuses on the shift from a concept of insanity understood in terms of religion to another (as entertained by early psychiatry, especially in France) according to which it is believed that forms of madness tinged by religion are difficult to cure. The traditional religious view of madness, as exemplified by Pascal (inter alia), is first illustrated by entries from the Encyclopédie. Then the shift towards a medical view of madness, inspired by Vitalistic physiology, is mapped by entries taken from the same publication. Firmed up by Pinel, this shift caused the abandonment of the religious view. Esquirol considered religious mania to be a vestige from the past, but he also believed that mental conditions carrying a religious component were difficult to cure.

The debate on the causes and the nature of pellagra in Italy during the nineteenth century resembles and evokes the similar debate on General Paralysis of the Insane (GPI) that was growing at the same time in the United Kingdom. Pellagra and GPI had a massive and virulent impact on the populations of Italy and the UK, respectively, and contributed to a great extent to the increase and overcrowding of the asylum populations in these countries. This article compares the two illnesses by examining the features of their nosographic positioning, aetiology and pathogenesis. It also documents how doctors arrived at the diagnoses of the two diseases and how this affected their treatment.

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New issue – Social History of Medicine

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The newest issue of Social History of Medicine includes at least two articles that may be of interest to H-madness readers.

Jade Shepherd, “‘I am not very well I feel nearly mad when I think of you”: Male Jealousy, Murder and Broadmoor in Late-Victorian Britain’. The abstract reads:

This article compares the representations of jealousy in popular culture, medical and legal literature, and in the trials and diagnoses of men who murdered or attempted to murder their wives or sweethearts before being found insane and committed into Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum between 1864 and 1900. It is shown that jealousy was entrenched in Victorian culture, but marginalised in medical and legal discourse and in the courtroom until the end of the period, and was seemingly cast aside at Broadmoor. As well as providing a detailed examination of varied representations of male jealousy in late-Victorian Britain, the article contributes to understandings of the emotional lives of the working-class, and the causes and representations of working-class male madness.

Julie M. Powell, ‘Shock Troupe: Medical Film and the Performance of ‘Shell Shock’ for the British Nation at War‘. The abstract reads:

In 1917, physician Arthur F. Hurst began filming the peculiar tics and hysterical gaits of ‘shell-shocked’ soldiers under his care. Editions of Hurst’s films from 1918 and 1940 survive. Cultural products of their time, I argue, the films engaged with contemporary ideas of class, gender and nation. The 1918 version reinforced class-based notions of disease and degeneracy while validating personal and national trauma and bolstering conceptions of masculinity and the nation that were critical to wartime morale and recovery efforts. The 1940 re-edit of the film engaged with the memory of the First World War by constructing a restorative narrative and by erasing the troubled years of gender crisis, ‘shell shock’ culture and class struggle to reassert masculine virtue and martial strength, essential for the prosecution of the Second World War.

This information was retrieved from the blog Advances in the history of psychology.

New issue – History of the Human Sciences

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The new issue of the History of the Human Sciences on Psychotherapy in Historical Perspective could be of interest to H-madness readers. The issue is edited by Sarah Marks and contains the following articles:

Sarah Marks, Introduction: Psychotherapy in historical perspective

This article will briefly explore some of the ways in which the past has been used as a means to talk about psychotherapy as a practice and as a profession, its impact on individuals and society, and the ethical debates at stake. It will show how, despite the multiple and competing claims about psychotherapy’s history and its meanings, historians themselves have, to a large degree, not attended to the intellectual and cultural development of many therapeutic approaches. This absence has the potential consequence of implying that therapies have emerged as value-free techniques, outside of a social, economic and political context. The relative neglect of psychotherapy, by contrast with the attention historians have paid to other professions, particularly psychiatry, has also underplayed its societal impact. This article will foreground some of the instances where psychotherapy has become an object of emerging historical interest, including the new research that forms the substance of this special issue of History of the Human Sciences.

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New article – Burkhart Brückner, Lukas Iwer and Samuel Thoma, Die Existenz, Abwesenheit und Macht des Wahnsinns. Eine kritische Übersicht zu Michel Foucaults Arbeiten zur Geschichte und Philosophie der Psychiatrie.

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The first 2017 issue of NTM – Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin includes one article that could be of interest to H-madness readers. Burkhart Brückner, Lukas Iwer and Samuel Thoma, Die Existenz, Abwesenheit und Macht des Wahnsinns. Eine kritische Übersicht zu Michel Foucaults Arbeiten zur Geschichte und Philosophie der Psychiatrie. The abstract reads:

This article discusses Michel Foucault’s main writings on “madness and psychiatry” from his early works up to the 1970s. On the one hand, we reconstruct the overall theoretical and methodological development of his positions over the course of the different periods in his oeuvre. On the other hand, we also take a closer look at Foucault’s philosophical considerations regarding the subjects of his investigations. After an initial introduction of our conceptual approach, we draw on the most recent research on Foucault to show to what extent the phenomenological description of the topic at hand and the historical-critical perspective that are reflected in his early writings of 1954 (the Introduction to Binswanger’s Dream and Existence and Mental Illness and Personality) laid the ground for his later work. Moving on to Foucault’s work during the 1960s, we look at the core features and methodological bases of his 1961 classic Folie et déraison (History of Madness). His propositions regarding the “absence of madness” in modernity are conceptualized as an inherently contradictory attempt to liberate the topic under study from the common assumptions at that time. We then situate his 1973/74 lectures on Psychiatric Power in the context of his shift towards analyzing the dynamics of power and highlight the renewed shift of focus in his statements on the “productivity” of madness as an effect of power. Finally, we sum up our critique by taking into account the history of the reception of Foucault’s writings and ask about their potential significance for the contemporary philosophy and history of psychiatry.

Conference – Les infirmières de la folie (8 May 2017, Montréal) and launch of the special issue of Santé Mentale au Québec

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On the 8th of May 2017 there will be a conference in Montreal titled Les infirmières de la folie. Histoire et évolution des soins infirmiers en psychiatrie au sein de l’espace francophone. Below you find the abstract and the programme of the conference. For more information see the ACFAS website.

During the conference the special issue of Santé Mentale au Québec on l’archive psychiatrique will be launched. The issue is coordinated by Marie-Claude Thifault, Isabelle Perreault, Alexandre Klein and Jean Caron.

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New issue – Bulletin of the History of Medicine

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The Bulletin of the History of Medicine published its first issue of 2017 and includes at least two articles that could be of interest to H-madness readers.

Benjamin Zajicek, ‘Banning the Soviet Lobotomy: Psychiatry, Ethics, and Professional Politics during Late Stalinism’. The abstract reads:
This article examines how lobotomy came to be banned in the Soviet Union in 1950. The author finds that Soviet psychiatrists viewed lobotomy as a treatment of “last resort,” and justified its use on the grounds that it helped make patients more manageable in hospitals and allowed some to return to work. Lobotomy was challenged by psychiatrists who saw mental illness as a “whole body” process and believed that injuries caused by lobotomy were therefore more significant than changes to behavior. Between 1947 and 1949, these theoretical and ethical debates within Soviet psychiatry became politicized. Psychiatrists competing for institutional control attacked their rivals’ ideas using slogans drawn from Communist Party ideological campaigns. Party authorities intervened in psychiatry in 1949 and 1950, persecuting Jewish psychiatrists and demanding adherence to Ivan Pavlov’s theories. Psychiatrists’ existing conflict over lobotomy was adopted as part of the party’s own campaign against harmful Western influence in Soviet society.
Jennifer Lynn Lambe, ‘Revolutionizing Cuban Psychiatry: The Freud Wars, 1955–1970’. The abstract reads:
This article traces the battle over Freud within Cuban psychiatry from its pre-1959 origins through the “disappearance” of Freud by the early 1970s. It devotes particular attention to the visit of two Soviet psychiatrists to Cuba in the early 1960s as part of a broader campaign to promote Pavlov. The decade-long controversy over Freud responded to both theoretical and political concerns. If for some Freud represented political conservatism and theoretical mystification, Pavlov held out the promise of a dialectical materialist future. Meanwhile, other psychiatrists clung to psychodynamic perspectives, or at least the possibility of heterogeneity. The Freudians would end up on the losing side of this battle, with many departing Cuba over the course of the 1960s. But banishing Freud did not necessarily make for stalwart Pavlovians—or vanguard revolutionaries. Psychiatry would find itself relegated to a handmaiden position in the work of revolutionary mental engineering, with the government itself occupying the vanguard.

 

New article – Alexandre Klein, De la scientificité de la psychiatrie francophone. Unité linguistique et continuité historique des représentations de la santé mentale au Québec entre 1948 et 1960

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The first 2017 issue of Histoire, Économie & Société includes at least one article that may be of interest to h-madness readers. Alexandre Klein, ‘De la scientificité de la psychiatrie francophone. Unité linguistique et continuité historique des représentations de la santé mentale au Québec entre 1948 et 1960‘. The abstract reads:

Contre une tradition historiographique qui sépare les psychiatries québécoises anglophone et francophone pour mieux affirmer le retard scientifique et thérapeutique de cette dernière, cet article s’attache à démontrer la scientificité des recherches psychiatriques francophones dans le Québec des années 1950. Pour ce faire, il analyse un corpus d’articles de psychiatres québécois francophones publiés dans différentes revues médicales canadiennes entre 1948 et 1960, afin de mettre en lumière la continuité et l’unité de l’histoire de la santé mentale dans cette province canadienne.

 

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