Archive for the ‘ syllabus ’ Category

Syllabus: Lunbeck, “The Freudian Century”

This is another installment in our series on university and college courses dealing with the history of madness, mental illness, and psychiatry.

Elizabeth Lunbeck is co-editor of H-Madness and  a historian of psychiatry and psychoanalysis. She is the author of The Psychiatric Persuasion: Knowledge, Gender, and Power in Modern America (Princeton 1994,  1996), and, with the psychoanalyst Bennett Simon, of Family  Romance, Family Secrets (Yale 2003).  She has co-edited several additional volumes, most recently Histories of Scientific Observation, with Lorraine Daston (Chicago, 2010).  At present, she is completing The Americanization of Narcissism.  Grants and fellowships from  the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, the National Institutes of  Health, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the Charles Warren Center, among others, have funded her research and writing. Lunbeck is Nelson Tyrone, Jr Professor of History, and Professor of Psychiatry, at Vanderbilt.

Psychiatric Times: What Universities are Teaching About the History of Psychiatry

Psychiatric Times is now featuring its December blog installment from the editors at H-Madness.  In “What Are Universities and Colleges Teaching About the History of Psychiatry and Mental Illness,” Greg Eghigian offers some cursory reflections on the series about teaching that H-Madness ran back in August and September.  He discusses what the syllabi and comments of instructors tell us about who is teaching what about the history of psychiatry, psychotherapy, and mental illness, and he offers some suggestions for improving the scope of course content.  You can read the piece here.  Remember, however, you must register in order to access articles on the site, but registration is free.

Syllabus: Loughran, “Managing the Mind: Psychiatry, Psychology, and British Culture, 1800-2000”

This is another installment in our series on university and college courses dealing with the history of madness, mental illness, and psychiatry.

Dr. Tracey Loughran is Lecturer in Medical History at Cardiff University. Her research to date has focused on shell-shock in First World War Britain, and she is currently writing up a monograph on this topic. Her new research project is on health and female print culture in the late twentieth century. Further biographical details can be found here.

This module is designed for second year undergraduate history students, many of whom have not studied the history of medicine or modern British history in-depth before. This is the second year it has run, and it is still very much a work in progress. The module attempts to chart the history of psychiatry in Britain, but also the ‘psychologization’ of everyday life over the past two centuries. This means that there is a lot to cover, and one gap on the module is an absence of consideration of the growth of psychology as a professional discipline (the growth of the profession of psychiatry is also only covered in a very sketchy way). The module is roughly chronology, with some topics which are perceived as essential, but many of these topics are included primarily because they are useful case studies for discussing how attitudes to sanity and madness, and the experiences of those diagnosed as mentally ill, have changed over the past two centuries. The module also attempts to introduce students to some different types of primary source material, particularly film.

Syllabus: Eghigian,”History of Madness and Psychiatry in the Western World”

This is another installment in our series on university and college courses dealing with the history of madness, mental illness, and psychiatry.

Greg Eghigian is co-editor of H-Madness and Director of the Science, Technology, and Society Program (on leave 2010-11) and Associate Professor of Modern History and Science, Technology, and Society at Penn State University (USA).  He writes and teaches on the history of madness, mental illness, and mental health in the western world.  He is the co-editor and author of numerous books, most recently From Madness to Mental Health;  Psychiatric Disorder and its Treatment in Western Civilization (Rutgers University Press, 2010).

The course I teach is one I designed from “scratch,” so to speak.   By that, I mean that there was no such course on the books at my university when I first started out.  So, I needed to build the course from the ground up.

From the start, I was faced with choices.  What time period should the course cover?  What geographical region or regions?  Would the focus be on medicine and psychiatry, or would it integrate broader social and cultural aspects?  Should the course be for advanced students majoring in history, or should it target non-history majors?

I decided pretty quickly, however, that the course should be an introductory level and one that would attract students from across the university.  It’s important,  I think, that students think about history as more than just the story of kings, queens, wars, political developments, and social movements.  These are all important matters, to be sure, but thematic dimensions of human history can also provide an important window into how and why the world has come to appear the way it does.  But beyond this, I was (and remain) less interested in the prospect of luring history majors to the course than bringing in students majoring in psychology, pre-med, life and health sciences, and the social sciences.  One of my chief purposes, then, is to get future clinicians, caretakers, researchers, and policy makers to consider what an historical perspective might say about the choices made and not made along the way in the development of social and medical thinking about and responses to madness.  This is accomplished institutionally, at least, by ensuring that the course satisfies the “general humanities” requirement that students in non-humanities fields must meet.

Thus, I designed and teach the course as an introduction to the long history of (ancient times to the present) of madness and mental health.  There are restrictions and limitations, however.  I focus exclusively on the “western” world, meaning Europe (including Russia and Great Britain), European colonies, and the United States.  I try to be sensitive to non-western perspectives and global change, but, alas, there is only so much I know and can present.  In the ancient and medieval periods, I make a point of discussing the roles of Judaism, paganism, Christianity, and Islam, but the course has an increasingly secular focus as we move into the modern period.  Developments since the 18th century are the main focus of the course, due, in part, to my own interests, but also due to the fact that I believe students are eager to learn about the 19th and 20th centuries.

The course in its present form is relatively large, ranging in recent years from 140 to 220 students.   At Penn State, this means that the course has a fixed structure: two large lectures a week, combined with smaller discussion sections taught by graduate teaching assistants every Friday.   My lectures are fairly straightforward PowerPoint presentations, punctuated by films now and again.  The focus of the Friday sections is on primary sources.  The graduate TAs and I meet once a week to analyze and talk about the week’s primary sources, flagging the main themes to be addressed on Friday.

Originally, when I taught the course, the primary sources were provided to the students in the form of a photocopied reader.  The course, however, inspired me to “take the plunge” and edit a primary source reader, now being published by Rutgers University Press (thanks to former TA Deirdre Fulton for lighting a fire under me).

Something I later integrated into the book I’ve edited is the periodization of the course. I break the course down thematically as well as chronologically.  The longest period I call the Pneumatic Age (from ancient times to the 18th century) – from the ancient Greek concept of “pneuma” – when madness was seen and treated as both a spiritual and somatic affliction.  The second period, running from the second half of the eighteenth through the 19th century, I deem the Age of Optimism.  Here, the emphasis is on institutional and treatment reforms as well as the growing importance of academic science and research.   The third period – from around 1914 to the 1970s – I refer to as the Militant Age, a period when heroic medicine and radical projects came to dominate psychiatric work.  Finally, a period from around the middle of the 20th century to the present I refer to as the Psychoboom.  This is a time when a wide array of psychotherapies entered the marketplace, coupled with a precipitous rise in the number of mental health professionals.

Without question, there are advantages and disadvantages to covering such a lengthy period of time.  It is difficult to give the most recent developments the time they deserve: student (and instructor) fatigue sets in at the same time that one begins to take on the contemporary period.  And, of course, it is pretty much impossible to delve into any one issue in detail.  In the end, however, I believe much more is gained by spending considerable time on the pre-modern.  By taking students out of the comfort zone of modernity and encouraging them to see the world through ancient, medieval, and early modern eyes, it is perhaps a little easier to think about the present in novel ways.

Syllabus: Killen, “Madness and Modern Civilization”

This is another installment in our series on university and college courses dealing with the history of madness, mental illness, and psychiatry.

Andreas Killen is co-editor of H-Madness and Associate Professor of History at the City College of New York and the CUNY Graduate Center. He has held fellowships at the UCLA Humanities Consortium and the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science. Among his publications are Berlin Electropolis: Shock, Nerves, and German Modernity (University of California Press 2006) and a special volume of Osiris that he co-edited on the history of the human sciences. Currently he is working on a book about the relation between film and the human sciences in early 20th century Germany.

Syllabus: Hayward, “Madness and Medicine in Modern Britain”

This is another installment in our series on university and college courses dealing with the history of madness, mental illness, and psychiatry.

Rhodri Hayward is Wellcome Award Lecturer in the History of Medicine at Queen Mary, University of London, where he works closely with the Centre for the History of the Emotions. His current research examines the rise and political implications of psychiatric epidemiology in modern Britain.  He has published on a wide variety of subjects including the history of dreams, Pentecostalism, demonology, cybernetics and the relations between psychiatry and primary care. His book, Resisting History: Popular Religion and the Invention of the Unconscious was published by Manchester University Press in 2007. He has recently completed a second book, Self Cures, on the relationship between psychology and medicine in modern Britain.

‘Madness and Medicine in Modern Britain’ was first developed as a masters course at the University of East Anglia, where it proved popular among creative writing students in search of fresh material. Over the last few years it has been taught as a second or third year undergraduate option to history students and is usually oversubscribed.  At first glance the course appears rather parochial. It offers a linear narrative history of psychiatry in Britain from the building of the first state-sponsored asylums through to their closure under the Tory governments of the 1980s.  However within this narrative strong emphasis is placed on the legal origins of psychiatric categories, the changing bases and rationalisations of medico-psychological practice and the implications that these changes carry for the understanding of selfhood and interpersonal relationships.

In my experience the narrative format works very well.  Although it runs the risk of reifying certain medical developments it does bring out the contingency of psychiatric ideas and students are well able to understand the social and political factors that contribute to classifications, treatments and theories.  An ongoing disappointment is that where once students turned to these seminars for political insight, they are now more likely to treat classes as a kind of therapeutic forum in which they use historical materials to reflect upon their personal problems.  I once hoped that this course would help them see their problems, are in the last analysis, political.  I am no longer convinced that this will happen.

Syllabus: Micale, Four Courses on the History of Madness

This is another installment in our series on university and college courses dealing with the history of madness, mental illness, and psychiatry.

Mark S. Micale is Professor of History at the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign where he regularly teaches courses in modern European intellectual history and the history of science and medicine.

History 498 is a course/seminar that in various versions I have taught many times over the past 15 years to undergraduate audiences at Yale, Manchester, and now the University of Illinois.  As you can see, it centers chronologically on the period I know most about–the long nineteenth century, from Pinel to World War One, or from the moral treatment to shell shock.  I designed it to introduce students to some of the major episodes, figures, and texts in psychiatric history during this formative 120 year period, as well as to numerous interpretative, cultural, and ideological issues about psychiatry and medicine at present.  It combines European and American topics and alternates between readings of primary texts (medical-authored readings, by Pinel, Esquirol, Crichton-Brown, Beard, Krafft-Ebing, Freud, etc.) and the best secondary scholarship.  In one version of the course, I include weeks on phrenology and on Dorothea Dix.   I also assign some poetry (by mad persons) and a novel, namely Pat Brown’s Regeneration.

The weekly film component in this course tends to be very successful with students, if you can convince them to commit to an additional evening class. From a proverbial embrassment of riches, I have tried to select movies that explore the historical theme of the week’s readings, sometimes themselves in historical settings and at other times in later, including present-day, settings.  I’ve considered teaching a specialized seminar on “Psychiatry and the Cinema,” but think it would probably be too much fun to teach.

The course syllabus subtitled “”Freud to Prozac” is intended as a sequel to this first course.  I have only actually taught it once and that was as a small independent tutorial.  Hence, it needs refinement.  Again, it would be offered on an upper-class college level.

History 396 is the syllabus for a very unique experience.  Last spring semester, 2010, I taught this course through the Education Justice Program of the University of Illinois at the nearby Danville Correctional Facility.  That is, I taught it to 15 student-prisoners at a medium-security prison, who qualified due to their previous educational records and who received course credit toward a degree for it.  EJP is a new and remarkable initiative in Illinois, and several other states, to provide college courses during incarceration.  My students were all men, ranging in age from 24 to 62.  All of them were African-American or Hispanic.

Needless to say, our class discussions differed greatly from those with students who were overwhelmingly white, middle-class and free.  They were in fact quite illuminating, for me as instructor. The experience changed in select ways how I think about and teach psychiatric history.  My audience, however, explains why this version of psychiatric history includes a section on “contemporary issues” and why it emphasizes issues of class and race.

Finally, “Classics in the History of European Psychiatry” is just what is says.  I co-taught this readings seminar with Renate Hauser, a Jungian analyst and Krafft-Ebing scholar from German-speaking Switzeland, at the Wellcome Institute in the late 1980s.  I was in London on a post-doctoral fellowship.  Our motivitating thought was that scholars bandy about the names of past psychiatric greats but in fact we generally are not very deeply read in their writings, except perhaps for Kraepelin and Freud and Jung.  So,as post-doc students, we designed a course that each week looked closely at some past classic, including a few “difficult” texts such as psychiatric textbooks by Feuchtersleben, Griesinger, and Meynert.  Bill Bynum and Roy Porter attended some of the sessions.  The seminar was open to the public and therefore attracted several psychiatrists (or psychiatric medical students in training) from London hospitals and medical schools (as well as a few “colorful characters” from the street).  This seminar too was most instructive.  I am so glad I had a chance to read these authors closely in a communal setting.  A course of this sort should work well in a history of medicine program allied to a school of medicine.

I have also taught more specialized and historiographically focused reading courses for graduate students, as well as graduate tutorials, including students in our M.D./Ph.D. program here.  The content tends to be determined by student interest.  One such grad course studied historiographical debates in 20th-century psychiatry (shell shock, political psychiatry, psychosurgery, etc.)  Another investigates “readings in deviance theory.”

The one other type of university course I wish to teach would be a more introductory lecture course.  The above courses are seminars directed toward upper-level undergraduates, who typically are either history majors, or pre-med majors, or have a topical interest within the history of psychiatry/medicine.  I can envision, in contrast, a survey course of lectures that would run from ancient divine madness and Egyptian brain trepaning to the present and would attract a wider liberal arts audience of students.  I hope to work up the lectures for such an offering in the future.  The subject is congenial to this type of educational treatment, with its many episodes that are fascinating, comical, and horrifying.

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