French Sociologist Robert Castel dies at 79

5463590-robert-castel-et-les-metamorphoses-du-pauvreLe sociologue et historien Robert Castel est mort mardi 12 mars 2013 à l’âge de 79 ans. Figure importante de la vie intellectuelle en France ces dernières années, observateur inquiet des transformations du rapport des sociétés contemporaines à leurs vulnérabilités, il est peut-être avant tout pour les lecteurs de ce blog l’auteur de certaines des analyses les plus fécondes des transformations des psychiatries françaises et américaines des XIXe et XXe siècles. Proche de Michel Foucault et de Pierre Bourdieu, il a développé autour de ces objets, de la fin des années 1960 au début des années 1980, une trajectoire de recherche à la fois originale et d’une grande cohérence, caractérisée par une capacité à se saisir de façon ramassée de la moyenne durée des processus sociaux en même temps que par une attention à la texture même des discours qui faisaient la matière de ses analyses. L’une des forces de son oeuvre a par ailleurs été sa sensibilité aux transformations à l’oeuvre sur les terrains qu’il observait au moment même où il les observait. D’abord préoccupé comme la plupart des observateurs et acteurs de la psychiatrie de son époque par la question de l’institution psychiatrique, dont il a montré le caractère instituant pour la psychanalyse des années 1960 (Le psychanalysme, 1973) avant d’en rechercher l’origine dans la genèse de la loi du 30 juin 1838 fondatrice de l’assistance psychiatrique en France (L’ordre psychiatrique, 1976), il a su déplacer son regard pour identifier en dehors de la psychiatrie institutionnelle les nouvelles façons de constituer et de gouverner le normal et le pathologique dans le champ psy de la fin des années 1970 (La société psychiatrique avancée co-écrit avec Françoise Castel et Anne Lovell, 1979 et La gestion des risques, 1982). L’analyse qu’il a proposé des travaux des stratégies de gestion des populations à risques dans la nouvelle politique sociale des gouvernements de Valéry Giscard d’Estaing a joué un rôle important pour les analyses anglo-saxonnes des formes de gouvernementalités par le risque à l’oeuvre dans les sociétés libérales avancées tandis que ses perspectives sur les façons dont les pratiques psychothérapiques et le discours psychologique de l’après 1968 tendaient à constituer “le social d’un monde sans social”, contribuant à l’émergence d’une nouvelle forme d’ “asociale sociabilité”, restent l’une des analyses les plus pertinentes de la contribution des disciplines psy à l’individualisme contemporain. Au-delà de ses engagements académiques Robert Castel était par ailleurs animé par une certaine idée de l’exercice de la psychiatrie qu’il a défendue avec son épouse, Françoise Castel, auprès notamment du psychiatre italien Franco Basaglia. La disparition de ces deux figures a sans doute joué un rôle dans la réorientation qu’il a donnée à ses objets de recherche à partir de la seconde moitié des années 1980. Après un travail sur les sorties de toxicomanie, il s’est engagé dans l’élaboration de ce qui est devenu le second grand moment de son oeuvre, Les métamorphoses de la question sociale (1995), analyse sur le long terme de la constitution et des métamorphoses du salariat comme condition sociale et politique, par ailleurs élargissement à l’ensemble des formes de vulnérabilités ou de désaffiliations des analyses qu’il avait consacrées à la maladie mentale. D’une grande lucidité sur son propre parcours, il a aussi consacré ces dernières années des pages pénétrantes au devenir de la posture de critique sociale qui était celle des sociologues de sa génération dans les années 1960 dans un monde marqué par la fin des utopies et du volontarisme intégratif. Si sur l’ensemble de ces objets ses analyses appellent parfois la discussion, si en particulier celles qu’il a consacrées à la psychiatrie mériteraient une réappréciation d’ensemble, elles forment néanmoins un ensemble impressionnant, auquel tout sociologue ou historien intéressé par les transformations contemporaines de la psychiatrie et du social est appelé se confronter à un moment ou autre.

Nicolas Henckes

New Book – The New Brain Sciences and the Management of the Mind (Nikolas Rose, Joelle M. Abi-Rached)

Neuro: The New Brain Sciences and the Management of the Mind

Nikolas Rose and Joelle M. Abi-Rached

Princeton University Press, 2013

The brain sciences are influencing our understanding of human behavior as never before, from neuropsychiatry and neuroeconomics to neurotheology and neuroaesthetics. Many now believe that the brain is what makes us human, and it seems that neuroscientists are poised to become the new experts in the management of human conduct. Neuro describes the key developments–theoretical, technological, economic, and biopolitical–that have enabled the neurosciences to gain such traction outside the laboratory. It explores the ways neurobiological conceptions of personhood are influencing everything from child rearing to criminal justice, and are transforming the ways we “know ourselves” as human beings. In this emerging neuro-ontology, we are not “determined” by our neurobiology: on the contrary, it appears that we can and should seek to improve ourselves by understanding and acting on our brains.

Neuro examines the implications of this emerging trend, weighing the promises against the perils, and evaluating some widely held concerns about a neurobiological “colonization” of the social and human sciences. Despite identifying many exaggerated claims and premature promises, Neuro argues that the openness provided by the new styles of thought taking shape in neuroscience, with its contemporary conceptions of the neuromolecular, plastic, and social brain, could make possible a new and productive engagement between the social and brain sciences.

Nikolas Rose is professor of sociology and head of the Department of Social Science, Health, and Medicine at King’s College London. His books include The Politics of Life Itself: Biomedicine, Power, and Subjectivity in the Twenty-First Century (Princeton).

Joelle M. Abi-Rached is a PhD candidate in the history of science at Harvard University.

For more information on this book, click here.

UCL Centre for the History of Psychological Disciplines Seminar Series

UCL Centre for the History of Psychological Disciplines Seminar Series* Sponsored by the British Psychological Society

 

Open to the public

Organiser: Professor Sonu Shamdasani (UCL)

*Tuesday 12th March*

Dr. Hereward Tilton (University of Exeter) – “The Path of the Serpent: Gnosis, Alchemy and the Esoteric Antecedents of Analytical Psychology”

C. G. Jung influentially asserted that the alchemical corpus constituted the missing link in an ‘uninterrupted intellectual chain’ leading from ancient Gnosticism to his own analytical psychology. Nevertheless, recent studies in the history of Western esotericism have problematised both Jung’s interpretation of alchemy and his historiography. Although certain doctrines and practices within the ancient Gnostic milieu can legitimately be considered distant precursors to analytical psychology, in this seminar we will discover that the chief conduit of their transmission to modernity was the Kabbalah in its Jewish, Christian and post-Christian occult incarnations. Particular attention will be directed to techniques for the attainment of heavenly ascent, conceived as a reversal of the cosmogony in the microcosm of the human body and depicted within Gnostic and Kabbalistic traditions — as in Indo-Tibetan Tantra — as ‘the path of the serpent’. Although it would be misleading to use the term ‘alchemy’ to describe what is essentially a species of theurgy, we will also explore the emergence of nineteenth-century Freemasonic and Theosophical notions of ‘spiritual alchemy’ from the Christian Cabalistic tradition of conceiving this heavenly ascent in alchemical terms. As I will argue, it is this alchemically conceived theurgy rather than alchemy /per se /that truly constitutes the ‘secret thread’ of esotericism leading to Jung’s work.

Location: UCL Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, Room 544,* 5th Floor, 1-19 Torrington Place, London WC1E 7HB

Directions: From the main reception, go through the double doors at the back and turn left, walk the length of this corridor and at the very end turn left again – you will find yourself in front of the ‘West’ Lifts. Take these to 5th Floor. On exiting the lift, turn right through double doors and then left through single door, walk the length of this corridor pass through another door and then turn right – you will see a marble table ahead. Room 544 is straight ahead.

Parution de livre: “Expériences de la folie – Criminels, soldats, patients en psychiatrie (XIXe-XXe siècles)” (Laurence Guignard, Hervé Guillemain et Stéphane Tison)

9782753521872FSComment écrire aujourd’hui l’histoire de la folie ? Longtemps assimilée au seul discours de la médecine psychiatrique, celle-ci prend désormais de nouveaux chemins. Inscrite dans un champ social plus large, explorant la période méconnue du XXe siècle, et plaçant les individus au premier plan, l’histoire proposée dans ce volume s’applique à renouveler la description de l'”expérience psychiatrique” sous ses diverses formes.

A partir de trois situations institutionnelles différentes – judiciaire, militaire, hospitalière – exposées dans leur contexte historique des XIXe et XXe siècles, les auteurs de ce volume s’appliquent à saisir les trajectoires singulières des patients dans leurs interactions avec les configurations institutionnelles de la psychiatrie et les catégories médicales qui définissent la maladie mentale. Comment émerge la figure “limite” du fou dangereux au point de contact de la justice et de la psychiatrie ? Comment les troubles psychiques de la Grande guerre ont-ils été pensés et pris en charge ? Quelle l’ut la place des patients dans l’hôpital psychiatrique du XXe siècle ? A partir de ces trois questions se dessine une autre histoire de la folie dans laquelle les médecins sont acteurs au même titre que les juges, les militaires ou les patients.

Interdisciplinary Conference – Minding the Body: Dualism and its Discontents (CUNY Graduate Center)

Minding the Body: Dualism and its Discontents

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“Minding the Body” is an interdisciplinary conference hosted by the English Student Association at The CUNY Graduate Center.

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G. Gabrielle Starr (Seryl Kushner Dean of the College of Arts and Science and Professor of English, NYU) will serve as respondent.

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Mary Flanagan, artist and Distinguished Professor in Digital Humanities at Dartmouth College, will give the opening keynote talk. Flanagan will discuss embodiment and a desire for control of the body in culture, or “The Age of Play,” through examples from popular culture, artists’ works, and games, with particular emphasis on games.

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Frédérique de Vignemont (Institut Jean-Nicod), philosopher of cognitive science, will give the closing keynote talk. De Vignemont will consider the relationship between the body and the self, including discussion of identity, the nature of the self, with focus particularly on questions concerning the sense of ownership of the body.

The conference presents work by 65 presenters that explore the “mind-body problem” via a range of disciplines, including literary studies, philosophy, medicine, psychology, sociology,  film and media studies, the visual arts, performance studies, and cognitive science, among others. Questions about theories of mind and consciousness, the role of emotions and affect, and understandings of embodiment will be explored. Presenters consider a wide range of topics.

Please see conference website for more information about the conference:

http://www.mindingthebodyconference.wordpress.com

Conference Schedule

Thursday, Feb 28, 4:00 pm – 5:30 pm, Concourse Level 204-205, Livestream found at:

http://mindingthebodyconference.wordpress.com/about-the-conference/opening-keynote/

Keynote: Mary Flanagan – “Never Mind the Body, Here’s a Gamepad? Considering Embodiment in The Age of Play

Thursday, Feb 28, 6:00 pm – 7:30 pm, Room 5414

“Science, Mind, and Body” Interdisciplinary Roundtable discussion, with Victoria Pitts-Taylor (Sociology), Jason Tougaw (English), Patricia Ticineto-Clough (Sociology, Women’s Studies), Samir Chopra (Philosophy), and Gerhard Joseph (English)

Friday, Mar 1, 9:00 am – 4:00 pm, Concourse Level, Rooms 201, 202, 203, 204, 205

Twenty panels and presentations. Please see conference website for a list of panels, titles, bios and more information.

Friday, Mar 1, 4:30 pm – 5:30 pm, Elebash Recital Hall

“Literature, Cognition, Emotions and Embodiment” Roundtable discussion with Meena Alexander, John Brenkman, Glenn Burger, Anne Humpherys, and Nancy Yousef

Friday, Mar 1, 6:00 pm – 7:30pm, Elebash Recital Hall

Keynote: Frédérique de Vignemont (Institut Jean-Nicod) – “A Self for the Body”

Respondent:  G. Gabrielle Starr (Seryl Kushner Dean of the College of Arts and Science and Professor of English, NYU)

Cosponsored by the PhD program in English, the English Student Association, the Doctoral Students’ Council, the Committee for Interdisciplinary Science Studies, the Center for Humanities, GC Digital Initiatives, the Center for the Study of Women and Society, the Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies, the Twentieth Century Area Studies Group, and CUNY Digital Humanities Initiative.

New issue – History of Psychiatry

A new issue of History of Psychiatry is now available online and contains the following articles:

The morbidity and mortality linked to melancholia: two cohorts compared, 1875–1924 and 1995–2005 (Margaret Harris, Fiona Farquhar, David Healy, Joanna C Le Noury, Stefanie C Linden, J Andrew Hughes, and Anthony P Roberts)

For over a century, melancholia has been linked to increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Data from two epidemiologically complete cohorts of patients presenting to mental health services in North Wales (1874–1924 and 1995–2005) have been used to look at links between diagnoses of melancholia in the first period and severe hospitalized depressive disorders today and other illnesses, and to calculate mortality rates. This is a study of the hospitalized illness rather than the natural illness, and the relationship between illness and hospitalization remains poorly understood. These data confirm that melancholia is associated with a substantial increase in the standardized mortality rate both formerly and today, stemming from a higher rate of deaths from tuberculosis in the historical sample and from suicide in the contemporary sample. The data do not link melancholia to cancer or cardiac disease. The comparison between outcomes for melancholia historically and severe mood disorder today argue favourably for the effectiveness of asylum care.

Ergotism in Norway. Part 1: The symptoms and their interpretation from the late Iron Age to the seventeenth century (Torbjørn Alm and Brita Elvevåg)

Ergotism is a horrendous disease with grotesque symptoms caused by ingesting specific ergot alkaloids. Mass poisoning episodes are attributable to consumption of grain – usually rye – infected with the fungus Claviceps purpurea. By focusing on possible cases of ergotism, we re-examine Norwegian history from the sagas through to the end of the seventeenth century. Our review – not intended to be exhaustive, orex post facto to assign medical or psychiatric labels – draws attention to the very real possibility that many remarkable medical cases may have been the result of the ingestion of highly poisonous and psychoactive food substances. Where possible we highlight explanations given at the time – often rooted in religion or demonology – to explain the disease.

Revisiting mental hygiene: Josef Lundahl’s interpretation of modern psychiatry in Sweden at the beginning of the twentieth century (Katarina Piuva)

The concept of mental hygiene is historically intertwined with eugenics and what it meant both ideologically and for the care of the mentally ill. A closer investigation of the concept and of the historical context shows that different interpretations existed simultaneously. The aim of this essay is to highlight the literary and scientific works of a Swedish psychiatrist, Josef Lundahl, an advocate of the mental hygiene concept. A close reading of his texts is used to provide an example of how the concept of mental hygiene was understood by a psychiatrist and practitioner of mental hygiene. The practice of child-care and out-patient care that Lundahl founded in Visby is far from what we now associate with mental hygiene in the past.

Psychopathology beyond semiology. An essay on the inner workings of psychopathology (Carlos Rejón Altable and Dr Tom Dening)

This text develops three interwoven issues: first, a succinct comparative analysis of medical and psychiatric semiology, which proposes that the lack of referring relations between psychiatric symptoms and brain/psychic dysfunction is a fundamental distinction between medical and psychiatric semiology. Second, the multiple features of psychiatric semiology are reviewed. Third, a new approach to psychopathology is introduced, proposing three different ways to shape symptoms (perception, linguistic structure, praxis); highlighting its role as a cognitive activity that creates intelligibility from undifferentiated experiences; and distinguishing psychopathology and semiology on an activity/product relation basis.

William James and psychical research: towards a radical science of mind (Alexandre Sech Junior, Saulo de Freitas Araujo, and Alexander Moreira-Almeida)

Traditional textbooks on the history of psychiatry and psychology fail to recognize William James’s investigations on psychic phenomena as a legitimate effort to understand the human mind. The purpose of this paper is to offer evidence of his views regarding the exploration of those phenomena as well as the radical, yet alternative, solutions that James advanced to overcome theoretical and methodological hindrances. Through an analysis of his writings, it is argued that his psychological and philosophical works converge in psychical research revealing the outline of a science of mind capable of encompassing psychic phenomena as part of human experience and, therefore, subject to scientific scrutiny.

‘Paralysed with fears and worries’: neurasthenia as a gender-specific disease of civilization (Jessica Slijkhuis and Harry Oosterhuis)

Around 1900 neurasthenia received much attention in both the medical world and society at large. Based on professional publications by Dutch psychiatrists and neurologists and on patient records from the Rhijngeest sanatorium near Leiden in the Netherlands, this article addresses the meanings and interpretations of this nervous disorder as put forward by doctors and patients. We argue that their understanding of this disorder was determined not only by medical views, but also by social-cultural factors and prevailing gender norms.

Use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs during the heroic age of Antarctic exploration (HR Guly)

During the heroic age of Antarctic exploration, there was much discussion on the role of alcohol. The explorers expected to be able to consume alcohol, and the expeditions were supported by companies producing alcoholic beverages that used the Antarctic connection in their advertising. On the other side, it was said (incorrectly) than Fridjof Nansen, perhaps the most famous of the Arctic explorers, had taken no alcohol and this was used in the arguments against alcohol by the temperance movement. In general, alcohol consumption was low but it was felt that alcohol played an important role in maintaining the psychological welfare of the participants. A number of them had alcohol problems, and participation in an expedition was thought to be of benefit in that it would remove the temptation to consume alcohol. However, there were episodes of drunkenness on the ships and in the Antarctic. Cocaine was taken as one of a number of tonics but only one explorer is thought to have abused drugs, though another is said to have done so.

The issue also contains a number of book reviews and the classic text ‘On the Diseases of the Head’ in the Scale of Medicine by Muhammad Akbar Arzn [d. 1722] (presented by Neil Krishan Aggarwal)

For more information, click here.

Mellon Postdoctoral Fellowship in Science, Medicine and Literature – Oxford

Mellon Postdoctoral Fellowship in Science, Medicine and Literature at the University of Oxford. The fellowship is for two years, starting in September or October 2013. The successful applicant will be based in either the Faculty of English Language and Literature, or the Faculty of Medieval and Modern Languages, depending on the area of specialism. The proposed project may be in any area of science, medicine and literature studies, from the medieval period through to contemporary times, and in English or a European language (with a preference for French, Italian or German). Closing date March 12.

For further details see http://www.recruit.ox.ac.uk.

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